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Risk of Late Relapse or Reinfection With Hepatitis C Virus After Achieving a Sustained Virological Response: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Background. Treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to sustained virological response (SVR) in over 90% of people. Subsequent recurrence of HCV, either from late relapse or reinfection, reverses the beneficial effects of SVR. Methods. A search identified studies analysing HCV recurrence post-SVR. The recurrence rate for each study was calculated using events/person years...

Joint synthesis of multiple correlated outcomes in networks of interventions

Population Sciences, University of Birmingham , Edgbaston, Birmingham, B152TT , UK RICHARD D. RILEY GEORGIA SALANTI∗ c The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article ... Orestis Efthimiou, Dimitris Mavridis, and Georgia Salanti) and the MRC Methodology Research Programme (MR/J013595/1 to Richard D. Riley). REFERENCES BUJKIEWICZ , S. AND OTHERS ( 2013 ). Multivariate meta

Meta-analysis of randomized phase II trials to inform subsequent phase III decisions

Background If multiple Phase II randomized trials exist then meta-analysis is favorable to increase statistical power and summarize the existing evidence about an intervention's effect in order to help inform Phase III decisions. We consider some statistical issues for meta-analysis of Phase II trials for this purpose, as motivated by a real example involving nine Phase II trials...

Meta-analysis of test accuracy studies: an exploratory method for investigating the impact of missing thresholds

Background Primary studies examining the accuracy of a continuous test evaluate its sensitivity and specificity at one or more thresholds. Meta-analysts then usually perform a separate meta-analysis for each threshold. However, the number of studies available for each threshold is often very different, as primary studies are inconsistent in the thresholds reported. Furthermore...

Methodological issues and recommendations for systematic reviews of prognostic studies: an example from cardiovascular disease

Hodgkinson Marie Lordkipanidz Richard D Riley David Fitzmaurice David Moore 0 0 School of Health and Population Sciences, University of Birmingham , Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT , UK Background: Prognostic

Self-management of health care behaviors for COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Self-management of health care behaviors for COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis Kate Jolly,1 Saimma Majothi,1 Alice J Sitch,1 Nicola R Heneghan,2 Richard D Riley,3 David J Moore,1 Elizabeth

Developing and validating risk prediction models in an individual participant data meta-analysis

Background Risk prediction models estimate the risk of developing future outcomes for individuals based on one or more underlying characteristics (predictors). We review how researchers develop and validate risk prediction models within an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis, in order to assess the feasibility and conduct of the approach. Methods A qualitative review...

Protocol for a systematic review of prognostic models for the recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following treatment for a first unprovoked VTE

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease, with fatal recurrences occurring in 5% to 9% of patients, yet it is also one of the best examples of preventable disease. Prognostic models that utilise multiple prognostic factors (demographic, clinical and laboratory patient characteristics) in combination to predict individual outcome risk may allow the...

Individual participant data meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies: state of the art?

BackgroundPrognostic factors are associated with the risk of a subsequent outcome in people with a given disease or health condition. Meta-analysis using individual participant data (IPD), where the raw data are synthesised from multiple studies, has been championed as the gold-standard for synthesising prognostic factor studies. We assessed the feasibility and conduct of this...

Supported self-management for patients with COPD who have recently been discharged from hospital: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Price,1 Richard D Riley,3 Alice M Turner,4 Susan E Bayliss,1 David J Moore,1 Sally J Singh,5 Peymané Adab,1 David A Fitzmaurice,6 Rachel E Jordan1 1Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of ... access to scientific and medical research O r I g I n a l r e s e a r C h saimma Majothi 1 Kate Jolly1 n icola r heneghan 2 Malcolm J Price1 richard D riley 3 alice M Turner 4 susan e Bayliss1 David J

Exercise therapy for chronic low back pain: protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis

Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability and has a major socioeconomic impact. Despite a large amount of research in the field, there remains uncertainty about the best treatment approach for chronic LBP, and identification of relevant patient subgroups is an important goal. Exercise therapy is a commonly used strategy to treat chronic low back...

Protocol for a systematic review of the diagnostic and prognostic utility of tests currently available for the detection of aspirin resistance in patients with established cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease

Background The benefits of aspirin as an anti-platelet agent are well established; however, there has been much debate about the lack of uniformity in the efficacy of aspirin to inhibit platelet function. In some patients, aspirin fails to inhibit platelets even where compliance has been verified, a phenomenon which has been termed “aspirin resistance”. These patients may in turn...

Study protocol: differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes—individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

Background Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying...

Individual patient data meta-analysis of survival data using Poisson regression models

Background An Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analysis is often considered the gold-standard for synthesising survival data from clinical trials. An IPD meta-analysis can be achieved by either a two-stage or a one-stage approach, depending on whether the trials are analysed separately or simultaneously. A range of one-stage hierarchical Cox models have been previously proposed...

Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 (ERCC1) Status and Lung Cancer Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies and Recommendations

Purpose Despite discrepant results on clinical utility, several trials are already prospectively randomizing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by ERCC1 status. We aimed to characterize the prognostic and predictive effect of ERCC1 by systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Eligible studies assessed survival and/or chemotherapy response in NSCLC or SCLC by ERCC1...

Improving the Transparency of Prognosis Research: The Role of Reporting, Data Sharing, Registration, and Protocols

George Peat and colleagues review and discuss current approaches to transparency and published debates and concerns about efforts to standardize prognosis research practice, and make five recommendations. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Predicting infectious complications in neutropenic children and young people with cancer (IPD protocol)

Background A common and potentially life-threatening complication of the treatment of childhood cancer is infection, which frequently presents as fever with neutropenia. The standard management of such episodes is the extensive use of intravenous antibiotics, and though it produces excellent survival rates of over 95%, it greatly inconveniences the three-fourths of patients who...

The science of clinical practice: disease diagnosis or patient prognosis? Evidence about “what is likely to happen” should shape clinical practice

Altman Jonathan J Deeks Kate M Dunn 0 Alastair D Hay Harry Hemingway Linda LeResche George Peat 0 Pablo Perel Steffen E Petersen Richard D Riley 0 Ian Roberts Michael Sharpe Richard J Stevens Danielle A

TargetCOPD: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of targeted case finding for COPD versus routine practice in primary care: protocol

Background Many people with clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain undiagnosed worldwide. There are a number of small studies which have examined possible methods of case finding through primary care, but no large RCTs that have adequately assessed the most cost-effective approach. Methods/Design In this study, using a cluster randomised...