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Gene-nutrient interactions and susceptibility to human obesity

A large number of genome-wide association studies, transferability studies, and candidate gene studies performed in diverse populations around the world have identified gene variants that are associated with common human obesity. The mounting evidence suggests that these obesity gene variants interact with multiple environmental factors and increase susceptibility to this complex...

Crosstalk between Immune Cells and Adipocytes Requires Both Paracrine Factors and Cell Contact to Modify Cytokine Secretion

Increased adiposity results in a heightened infiltration of immune cells into fat depots, which in turn generates a pro-inflammatory phenotype in obese individuals. To better understand the causal factors that establish this pro-inflammatory profile, we examined events leading to crosstalk between adipocytes and immune cells. Using isolated spleen-derived immune cells, stimulated...

A Chemical Analog of Curcumin as an Improved Inhibitor of Amyloid Abeta Oligomerization

Amyloid-like plaques are characteristic lesions defining the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The size and density of these plaques are closely associated with cognitive decline. To combat this disease, the few therapies that are available rely on drugs that increase neurotransmission; however, this approach has had limited success as it has simply slowed an imminent...

Curcumin and resveratrol inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated cytokine expression in adipocytes

Background Adipocytes express inflammatory mediators that contribute to the low-level, chronic inflammation found in obese subjects and have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disorders and insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A reduction in inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes would be expected to reverse this low-level, inflammatory state...

Role of adipocyte-derived lipoprotein lipase in adipocyte hypertrophy

Background A major portion of available fatty acids for adipocyte uptake is derived from lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein particles. In vivo studies aimed at identifying the precise role of adipocyte-derived LPL in fat storage function of adipose tissue have been unable to provide conclusive evidence due to compensatory mechanisms that...

Syndecan-1 mediates internalization of apoE-VLDL through a low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-independent, non-clathrin-mediated pathway

Background Triacylglyerol-rich very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles are the primary carriers of fatty acids in the circulation and as such serve as a rich energy source for peripheral tissues. Receptor-mediated uptake of these particles is dependent upon prior association with apolipoprotein E (apoE-VLDL) and is brought about by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans...

Substituted trans-stilbenes can inhibit or enhance the TPA-induced up-regulation of activator protein-1

Background The activator protein-1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors contributes to regulation of numerous genes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. A wide array of stimuli can activate AP-1, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, tumor promoters and stress. Numerous plant polyphenols have been shown to inhibit the activation of AP-1...

Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans contribute to intracellular lipid accumulation in adipocytes

A Orlando 0 0 Address: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico, Health Sciences Center , 915 Camino de Salud, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 , USA Background

Protease nexin-1 expression is altered in human breast cancer

Background Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA), a serine protease, plays a pivotal role in human breast cancer metastasis by mediating the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins and promoting cell motility. In more advanced breast cancers, uPA activity is significantly up regulated and serves as a prognostic indicator of poor patient outcome. Classically, regulation...

Increased CD36 Expression Signals Monocyte Activation Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

YIJUAN SUN MS MARINA SCAVINI ROBERT A. ORLANDO PHD GLEN H. MURATA KAREN S. SERVILLA ANTONIOS H. TZAMALOUKAS RONALD SCHRADER PHD EDWARD J. BEDRICK PHD MARK R. BURGE NADA A. ABUMRAD PHD PHILIP G. ZAGER