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9 papers found.
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Impact of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy Among People With HIV: A US-Based Modeling Study

Background. In the United States, >40% of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) smoke cigarettes. Methods. We used a computer simulation of HIV disease and treatment to project the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, based on smoking status. We used age- and sex-specific data on mortality, stratified by smoking status. The ratio of the non-AIDS-related ...

Clinical Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Diagnosing HIV Infection During Early Infancy in South Africa: Test Timing and Frequency

Background. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during early infancy (commonly known as “early infant HIV diagnosis” [EID]) followed by prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduces mortality. EID testing is recommended at 6 weeks of age, but many infant infections are missed. Design/Methods. We simulated 4 EID testing strategies for ...

Potential Clinical and Economic Value of Long-Acting Preexposure Prophylaxis for South African Women at High-Risk for HIV Infection

Background. For young South African women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the few effective prevention options available. Long-acting injectable PrEP, which is in development, may be associated with greater adherence, compared with that for existing standard oral PrEP formulations, but its likely clinical benefits ...

Improving Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Reported Penicillin Allergy

Background. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia is a morbid infection. First-line MSSA therapies (nafcillin, oxacillin, cefazolin) are generally avoided in the 10% of patients reporting penicillin (PCN) allergy, but most of these patients are not truly allergic. We used a decision tree with sensitivity analyses to determine the optimal evaluation and ...

Meta-analysis: Neither quick nor easy

observation of the available data and should not be based on the results of preliminary analysis. Competing Interests None declared. Authors' Contributions Nancy G. Berman and Robert A. Parker collaborated on

Effects of Potent Antiretroviral Therapy on Free Testosterone Levels and Fat-Free Mass in Men in a Prospective, Randomized Trial: A5005s, a Substudy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 384

Background. Low testosterone levels are commonly reported in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. The effects of initiation of different antiretroviral regimens on testosterone levels and changes in fat-free mass have not been reported. Methods. Antiretroviral-naive men (n = 213) were randomized to receive nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both plus either ...

The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons: results from a randomized trial

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those containing protease inhibitors (PIs), are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Albuminuria is a known independent predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease and may potentially increase in patients receiving PIs. ...

Prophylaxis with Respiratory Syncytial Virus F—Specific Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Delays and Moderately Suppresses the Native Antibody Response but Does Not Impair Immunity to Late Rechallenge

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant viral cause of lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children. This study tested the hypothesis that a humanized murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) would protect against RSV infection in mice and have minimal suppressive effect upon the immune response because it is directed against a single epitope. A humanized ...