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Pneumococcal vaccination in older persons: where are we today?

Disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, remains a major source of illness in older persons. Globally, it remains the most important pathogen in respiratory infection deaths. Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are used extensively in national pediatric programs, whereas a polysaccharide vaccine is used in all age groups, but mainly in the elderly and for high-risk...

Impact of meningitis on intelligence and development: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the question “what is the impact of meningitis on IQ and development.” Methods Search: conducted using standardized search terms across Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE to 06/2014. Eligibility: human studies of any infectious aetiology of meningitis reporting IQ or infant developmental age or stage outcomes...

Carrier priming to improve pneumococcal disease control and reduce the international program’s cost in children

of the comment and supervised the progress of the entire work through to the final version. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Competing interests Robert Booy has received funding

Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir in infants under the age of 1 year

Background Oseltamivir is the only antiviral treatment recommended for influenza in young children over the age of 1 year. There is scant data on oseltamivir pharmacokinetics (PK) in infants <1 year. We set out to perform PK measurements in infants who received oseltamivir. Methods This study was a prospective, uncontrolled, open label evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of...

Passive smoking, invasive meningococcal disease and preventive measures: a commentary

Active smoking is a recognized risk factor of various infectious diseases. In a systematic review published in BMC Public Health, Murray et al. demonstrated that exposure to passive smoking significantly increased the risk of meningococcal disease among children. Their review especially highlights that the risk remains high even if the exposure occurs during pregnancy or after...

Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register (BCPR): a pilot study to develop a national cerebral palsy (CP) register with surveillance of children for CP

Background The causes and pathogenesis of cerebral palsy (CP) are all poorly understood, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). There are gaps in knowledge about CP in Bangladesh, especially in the spheres of epidemiological research, intervention and service utilization. In high-income countries CP registers have made substantial contributions to our...

Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Using an AS03B-Adjuvanted Influenza A(H5N1) Vaccine in Infants and Children <3 Years of Age

Background. Protecting young children from pandemic influenza should also reduce transmission to susceptible adults, including pregnant women. Methods. An open study assessed immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a heterologous booster dose of A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005(H5N1)-AS03B (AS03B is an Adjuvant System containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion [5.93 mg...

Trends in hospitalizations for diagnosed congenital cytomegalovirus in infants and children in Australia

Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is responsible for a wide range of diseases in neonates, and has been recognized as a major cause of congenital defects in developed countries for many years. More children suffer serious disabilities caused by congenital CMV than by several better-known childhood maladies. Insight into the epidemiology of congenital CMV disease is needed for the...

Global Role and Burden of Influenza in Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations, 1982–2012: A Systematic Analysis

Background The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to...

Acceptance of Intanza® 9 μg intradermal influenza vaccine in routine clinical practice in Australia and Argentina

Robert Booy National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Disease, The Children's Hospital at Westmead , Sydney, Australia 2 Peter Eizenberg North East Valley Division ... in relation to presentations, consultancy, and participation in advisory panels; Robert Booy has received financial compensation (paid to The Childrens Hospital at Westmead) from Sanofi Pasteur to

Unmasking Masks in Makkah: Preventing Influenza at Hajj

that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed. Harunor Rashid,1 Robert Booy,1,2 Leon Heron,1 Ziad A. Memish,3 Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam,4 Osamah Barasheed,1 and

Treating and Preventing Influenza in Aged Care Facilities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Background Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for frail older people. Whilst the antiviral drug oseltamivir (a neuraminidase inhibitor) is approved for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza during outbreaks, there have been no trials comparing treatment only (T) versus treatment and prophylaxis (T&P) in Aged Care Facilities (ACFs). Our objective was to...

Five years follow-up following two or three doses of a hepatitis B vaccine in adolescents aged 11-15 years: a randomised controlled study

Pierre Van Damme 0 Anna Moiseeva Igor Marichev Anne-Diane Kervyn Robert Booy Sherine Kuriyakose Andrew Brockway Su-Peing Ng Maarten Leyssen Jeanne-Marie Jacquet 0 Professor, Faculty of Medicine

Long-Term Immunological Follow-Up of Children with Haemophilus influenzae Serotype b Vaccine Failure in the United Kingdom

Background. It is not known how long children with Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine failure retain protective Hib antibody concentrations after infection. The objective of this study was to determine Hib antibody concentrations in children several years after infection and to identify risk factors for low antibody concentrations. Methods. The families of children...

Use of a Human Influenza Challenge Model to Assess Person-to-Person Transmission: Proof-of-Concept Study

Background. Influenza transmission in humans remains poorly understood. In particular, the relative contribution of contact, large droplet, and aerosol transmission is unknown. The aims of this proof-of-concept study were to determine whether an experimentally induced influenza infection is transmissible between humans and whether this would form a viable platform for future...

The study design and methodology for the ARCHER study - adolescent rural cohort study of hormones, health, education, environments and relationships

Background Adolescence is characterized by marked psychosocial, behavioural and biological changes and represents a critical life transition through which adult health and well-being are established. Substantial research confirms the role of psycho-social and environmental influences on this transition, but objective research examining the role of puberty hormones, testosterone...

Intradermal Influenza Vaccine Administered Using a New Microinjection System Produces Superior Immunogenicity in Elderly Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Enhanced influenza vaccines are needed to provide improved protection for elderly individuals. The intradermal vaccination route was hypothesized to provide immunogenicity superior to that provided by the intramuscular vaccination route. Methods. In a multicenter, randomized study, 1107 volunteers >60 years of age received intradermal trivalent inactivated influenza...

Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine Failure in Children Is Associated with Inadequate Production of High-Quality Antibody

Background. Despite the excellent immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, breakthrough cases of Hib disease still affect a small proportion of vaccinated children in the United Kingdom. We performed a retrospective study to compare the avidity of antibody directed against the Hib polysaccharide capsule (PRP) in children who experienced Hib...

Variation in the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Gene Promoter Region May Be Associated with Death from Meningococcal Disease

Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Levels of TNF-a are directly correlated with severity in meningococcal disease (MD). A polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene is associated with differences in the secretion of TNF-α. The TNF2 allele is associated with higher constitutive and inducible levels of TNF-α secretion...