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From Tension to Compression: Asymmetric Mechanical Behaviour of Trabecular Bone’s Organic Phase

Trabecular bone is a cellular composite material comprising primarily of mineral and organic phases with their content ratio known to change with age. Therefore, the contribution of bone constituents on bone’s mechanical behaviour, in tension and compression, at varying load levels and with changing porosity (which increases with age) is of great interest, but remains unknown. We...

Time Dependent Behaviour of Trabecular Bone at Multiple Load Levels

The deformation of bone when subjected to loads is not instantaneous but varies with time. To investigate this time-dependent behaviour sixteen bovine trabecular bone specimens were subjected to compressive loading, creep, unloading and recovery at multiple load levels corresponding to apparent strains of 2000–25,000 με. We found that: the time-dependent response of trabecular...

Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of bovine trabecular bone

The time-independent elastic properties of trabecular bone have been extensively investigated, and several stiffness–density relations have been proposed. Although it is recognized that trabecular bone exhibits time-dependent mechanical behaviour, a property of viscoelastic materials, the characterization of this behaviour has received limited attention. The objective of the...

Linear viscoelasticity - bone volume fraction relationships of bovine trabecular bone

Trabecular bone has been previously recognized as time-dependent (viscoelastic) material, but the relationships of its viscoelastic behaviour with bone volume fraction (BV/TV) have not been investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to quantify the time-dependent viscoelastic behaviour of trabecular bone and relate it to BV/TV. Uniaxial compressive creep...

Toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids to the biohydrogenating ruminal bacterium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens

Background Health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are abundant in forages grazed by ruminants and in vegetable and fish oils used as dietary supplements, but only a small proportion of PUFA finds its way into meat and milk, because of biohydrogenation in the rumen. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens plays a major role in this activity. The aim of this study was to investigate...

Twice-Daily Triple Nucleoside Intensification Treatment with Lamivudine-Zidovudine plus Abacavir Sustains Suppression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Results of the TARGET Study

This open-label, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial assessed the 48-week efficacy of a twice-daily triple nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor regimen containing a lamivudine (150 mg)—zidovudine (300 mg) combination tablet (COM) and abacavir (ABC; 300 mg) in 87 antiretroviral therapy-experienced, protease inhibitor—naive patients infected with human immunodeficiency...