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A prospective survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and infection in the intensive care unit

Shoshana Cohen Marina Afraimov Maurice Shapiro Martina Uda Efrat Khabra Amos Adler Ronen Ben Ami Svetlana Paikin 0 Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine , Technion, Haifa , Israel 1 Head of Infectious

Proangiogenic Growth Factors Potentiate In Situ Angiogenesis and Enhance Antifungal Drug Activity in Murine Invasive Aspergillosis

In invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, direct invasion and occlusion of pulmonary vasculature by Aspergillus hyphae causes tissue hypoxia, which is enhanced by secreted fungal metabolites that downregulate compensatory angiogenic signaling pathways. We assessed the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on survival rates, fungal ...

Tacrolimus Enhances the Potency of Posaconazole Against Rhizopus oryzae In Vitro and in an Experimental Model of Mucormycosis

Background. We hypothesized that tacrolimus, an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway, would enhance the in vivo activity of posaconazole against Rhizopus oryzae, the Mucorales species most commonly associated with mucormycosis. Methods. We examined patterns of growth inhibition and fungicidal activity of posaconazole and tacrolimus, alone and in combination, against R. oryzae in ...

Fitness and Virulence Costs of Candida albicans FKS1 Hot Spot Mutations Associated With Echinocandin Resistance

(See the editorial commentary by Clancy and Hong Nguyen, on pages 499–501.) The identification of FKS1 mutations in Candida albicans associated with echinocandin resistance has raised concerns over the spread of drug-resistant strains. We studied the impact of fks1 mutations on C. albicans virulence and fitness. Compared with wild-type strains for FKS1, echinocandin-resistant C. ...

Increased Virulence of Zygomycetes Organisms Following Exposure to Voriconazole: A Study Involving Fly and Murine Models of Zygomycosis

BackgroundBreakthrough zygomycosis is increasingly observed among patients at high risk for fungal infection who are receiving voriconazole, reflecting either selective pressure or voriconazole-associated alterations in Zygomycetes virulence. We tested the latter hypothesis, using 2 phylogenetically disparate zygomycosis models MethodsThree Zygomycetes strains were exposed to ...

Phaeohyphomycosis in a Tertiary Care Cancer Center

Background. Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection. To assess the range of clinical presentations and outcomes of phaeohyphomycosis in patients with cancer, we reviewed cases diagnosed at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX). Methods. We searched the microbiology laboratory records for dematiaceous molds that had been isolated during the period from ...

C-reactive protein velocity to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses in the emergency department

Introduction C-reactive protein (CRP) is a real-time and low-cost biomarker to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses. We hypothesised that measuring the velocity of the biomarker instead of its absolute serum concentration could enhance its ability to differentiate between these two conditions. Methods We prospectively recruited adult ...

A Multinational Survey of Risk Factors for Infection with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Nonhospitalized Patients

Background. Infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in frequency and are associated with high mortality rates. Circulation of CTX-M-type ESBLs in the community is of particular concern, because it may confound standard infection-control measures. Methods. We analyzed the results of epidemiologic studies of infection ...

Hospital-Acquired Infective Endocarditis: Should the Definition be Broadened?

Hospital-acquired infective endocarditis (IE) is a growing health-care problem. Hospital-acquired IE, according to the commonly used definition, is IE manifesting ⩾72 h after admission to the hospital or within several weeks after a hospital-based invasive procedure. To assess the validity of this definition, we evaluated 87 episodes of IE, with special attention to recent ...