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Comparative analysis of oral treponemes associated with periodontal health and disease

Background Periodontal diseases, such as periodontitis, are chronic inflammatory infections affecting the gingivae (gums), underlying connective tissues and bone that support the teeth. Oral treponemes (genus Treponema) are widely-considered to play important roles in periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis; however, precise relationships remain to be fully established...

pZMO7-Derived shuttle vectors for heterologous protein expression and proteomic applications in the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis

Background The ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has attracted considerable scientific and commercial interest due to its exceptional physiological properties. Shuttle vectors derived from native plasmids have previously been successfully used for heterologous gene expression in this bacterium for a variety of purposes, most notably for metabolic engineering...

Arginine deiminase pathway is far more important than urease for acid resistance and intracellular survival in Laribacter hongkongensis: a possible result of arc gene cassette duplication

Background Laribacter hongkongensis is a Gram-negative, urease-positive bacillus associated with invasive bacteremic infections in liver cirrhosis patients and fish-borne community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler’s diarrhea. Its mechanisms of adaptation to various environmental niches and host defense evasion are largely unknown. During the process of analyzing the L...

Functional characterization of an alkaline exonuclease and single strand annealing protein from the SXT genetic element of Vibrio cholerae

Background SXT is an integrating conjugative element (ICE) originally isolated from Vibrio cholerae, the bacterial pathogen that causes cholera. It houses multiple antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes on its ca. 100 kb circular double stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome, and functions as an effective vehicle for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes within susceptible...

Small noncoding RNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in Escherichia coli

Background The low pH environment of the human stomach is lethal for most microorganisms; but not Escherichia coli, which can tolerate extreme acid stress. Acid resistance in E. coli is hierarchically controlled by numerous regulators among which are small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA). Results In this study, we individually deleted seventy-nine sncRNA genes from the E. coli K12-MG1655...

Multilocus sequence analysis of Treponema denticola strains of diverse origin

Background The oral spirochete bacterium Treponema denticola is associated with both the incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Although the biological or phenotypic properties of a significant number of T. denticola isolates have been reported in the literature, their genetic diversity or phylogeny has never been systematically investigated. Here, we describe a...

Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines

Background Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. Result To compare vaccine...

The Two PPX-GppA Homologues from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Have Distinct Biochemical Activities

Inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P), guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) and guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) are ubiquitous in bacteria. These molecules play a variety of important physiological roles associated with stress resistance, persistence, and virulence. In the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the identities of the proteins responsible for the metabolism of...

Structural and functional insight into the mechanism of an alkaline exonuclease from Laribacter hongkongensis

Alkaline exonuclease and single-strand DNA (ssDNA) annealing proteins (SSAPs) are key components of DNA recombination and repair systems within many prokaryotes, bacteriophages and virus-like genetic elements. The recently sequenced β-proteobacterium Laribacter hongkongensis (strain HLHK9) encodes putative homologs of alkaline exonuclease (LHK-Exo) and SSAP (LHK-Bet) proteins on...

Visualizing the proteome of Escherichia coli: an efficient and versatile method for labeling chromosomal coding DNA sequences (CDSs) with fluorescent protein genes

Rory M. Watt Jing Wang Meikid Leong Hsiang-fu Kung Kathryn S.E. Cheah Depei Liu Antoine Danchin Jian-Dong Huang - To investigate the feasibility of conducting a genomic-scale protein labeling and

The involvement of replication in single stranded oligonucleotide-mediated gene repair

Targeted gene repair mediated by single-stranded oligonucleotides (SSOs) has great potential for use in functional genomic studies and gene therapy. Genetic changes have been created using this approach in a number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including mouse embryonic stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. In one of the current...

Identification of factors influencing strand bias in oligonucleotide‐mediated recombination in Escherichia coli

Recombinogenic engineering methodology, also known as recombineering, utilizes homologous recombination to create targeted changes in cellular DNA with great specificity and flexibility. In Escherichia coli, the Red recombination system from bacteriophage lambda has been used successfully to modify both plasmid and chromosomal DNA in a highly efficient manner, using either a...