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Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the...

Molecular Mechanisms of Fibrosis-Associated Promotion of Liver Carcinogenesis

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mostly develops in patients with advanced fibrosis; however, the mechanisms of interaction between a genotoxic insult and fibrogenesis are not well understood. This study tested a hypothesis that fibrosis promotes HCC via a mechanism that involves activation of liver stem cells. First, B6C3F1 mice were administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN; single ip...

Epigenetic Mechanisms of Mouse Interstrain Variability in Genotoxicity of the Environmental Toxicant 1,3-Butadiene

1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a common environmental contaminant classified as “carcinogenic to humans.” Formation of BD-induced DNA adducts plays a major role in its carcinogenicity. BD is also an epigenotoxic agent (i.e., it affects DNA and histone methylation in the liver). We used a panel of genetically diverse inbred mice (NOD/LtJ, CAST/EiJ, A/J, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, C57BL/6J, and...

Mouse Liver Effects of Cyproconazole, a Triazole Fungicide: Role of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor

Cyproconazole, a triazole fungicide, causes hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in CD-1 mice at dose levels of 100 and 200 ppm. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been shown to play a significant role in the overall mode of action for several nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens such as phenobarbital. The liver effects of dietary cyproconazole or phenobarbital were...