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Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus

Kosuke Motoki,5 Hyeonjeong Jeong,5,6 Yuka Kotozaki,7 Seishu Nakagawa,5 Rui Nouchi,8,9 Kunio Iizuka,5,10 Ryoichi Yokoyama,11 Yuki Yamamoto,5 Sugiko Hanawa,5 Tsuyoshi Araki,9 Kohei Sakaki,5 Yukako Sasaki,5 ... Motoki, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Rui Nouchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kohei Sakaki, Yukako Sasaki, and Daniele Magistro

Shorter sleep duration and better sleep quality are associated with greater tissue density in the brain

Poor sleep quality is associated with unfavorable psychological measurements, whereas sleep duration has complex relationships with such measurements. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between microstructural properties of the brain and sleep duration/sleep quality in a young adult. The associations between mean diffusivity (MD), a measure of diffusion tensor...

Lenticular nucleus correlates of general self-efficacy in young adults

General self-efficacy (GSE) is an important factor in education, social participation, and medical treatment. However, the only study that has investigated the direct association between GSE and a neural correlate did not identify specific brain regions, rather only assessed brain structures, and included older adult subjects. GSE is related to motivation, physical activity...

Ongoing Activity in Temporally Coherent Networks Predicts Intra-Subject Fluctuation of Response Time to Sporadic Executive Control Demands

Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person’s response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes...

The anterior midcingulate cortex as a neural node underlying hostility in young adults

Anger typically manifests for only a short period of time, whereas hostility is present for a longer duration. However, both of these emotions are associated with an increased likelihood of psychological problems. The nodes within the neural networks that underlie hostility remain unclear. We presumed that specific nodes might include the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC...

Amygdala and cingulate structure is associated with stereotype on sex-role

, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Takamitsu Shinada, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa & Ryuta KawashimaHuman and Social Response Research Division, International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University ... for Kunio Iizuka in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Ryoichi Yokoyama in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Takamitsu Shinada in:Nature Research

The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People

Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV) and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in...

Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study

 Yoritaka Akimoto,4 Mizuki Ihara,1 Ryoichi Yokoyama,4,5 Yuka Kotozaki,1 Rui Nouchi,1 Atsushi Sekiguchi,3,4 Hikaru Takeuchi,2 Carlos Makoto Miyauchi,4 Takeshi Ogawa,4 Takakuni Goto,4 Takashi Sunda,6 Toshiyuki

Brain structures in the sciences and humanities

The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never...

Regional Gray Matter Density Associated with Cognitive Reflectivity–Impulsivity: Evidence from Voxel-Based Morphometry

When faced with a problem or choice, humans can use two different strategies: “cognitive reflectivity,” which involves slow responses and fewer mistakes, or “cognitive impulsivity,” which comprises of quick responses and more mistakes. Different individuals use these two strategies differently. To our knowledge, no study has directly investigated the brain regions involved in...

Compensatory Effort Parallels Midbrain Deactivation during Mental Fatigue: An fMRI Study

Fatigue reflects the functioning of our physiological negative feedback system, which prevents us from overworking. When fatigued, however, we often try to suppress this system in an effort to compensate for the resulting deterioration in performance. Previous studies have suggested that the effect of fatigue on neurovascular demand may be influenced by this compensatory effort...

Regional gray matter density is associated with achievement motivation: evidence from voxel-based morphometry

Achievement motivation can be defined as a recurrent need to improve one’s past performance. Despite previous functional imaging studies on motivation-related functional activation, the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) morphology and achievement motivation has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry and a questionnaire (achievement motivation scale...