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Faecal Microbiota of Forage-Fed Horses in New Zealand and the Population Dynamics of Microbial Communities following Dietary Change

The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet (“Group A”; n = 6) or pasture (“Group B”; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected...

Two Different Bacterial Community Types Are Linked with the Low-Methane Emission Trait in Sheep

The potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is produced in the rumens of ruminant animals from hydrogen produced during microbial degradation of ingested feed. The natural animal-to-animal variation in the amount of CH4 emitted and the heritability of this trait offer a means for reducing CH4 emissions by selecting low-CH4 emitting animals for breeding. We demonstrate that...

Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Secondary Structure Analysis Reveals a Common Core throughout the Anaerobic Fungi (Neocallimastigomycota)

The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is a popular barcode marker for fungi and in particular the ITS1 has been widely used for the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). A good number of validated reference sequences of isolates as well as a large number of environmental sequences are available in public databases. Its highly variable nature predisposes the ITS1 for low...

Post-Weaning Diet Affects Faecal Microbial Composition but Not Selected Adipose Gene Expression in the Cat (Felis catus)

The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled (“Diet A”; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned...

Effect of DNA Extraction Methods and Sampling Techniques on the Apparent Structure of Cow and Sheep Rumen Microbial Communities

Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow...

A Proposed Taxonomy of Anaerobic Fungi (Class Neocallimastigomycetes) Suitable for Large-Scale Sequence-Based Community Structure Analysis

Anaerobic fungi are key players in the breakdown of fibrous plant material in the rumen, but not much is known about the composition and stability of fungal communities in ruminants. We analyzed anaerobic fungi in 53 rumen samples from farmed sheep (4 different flocks), cattle, and deer feeding on a variety of diets. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting of the...

Simultaneous Amplicon Sequencing to Explore Co-Occurrence Patterns of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryotic Microorganisms in Rumen Microbial Communities

contract to the Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium (PGgRc; www.pggrc.co.nz). Sandra Kittelmann received a travel grant within the scope of the International Mobility Fund initiated by the Royal