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Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data

Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a baseline period. Baseline correction is useful in experiments that investigate the...

The Mind-Writing Pupil: A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry

awarded to Sebastiaan Mathôt (http://cordis.europa.eu/ project/rcn/187709_en.html). In addition, this research was funded by a VIDI Grant 452-13008 from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research

Mantra: an open method for object and movement tracking

Mantra is a free and open-source software package for object tracking. It is specifically designed to be used as a tool for response collection in psychological experiments and requires only a computer and a camera (a webcam is sufficient). Mantra is compatible with widely used software for creating psychological experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, we validated the spatial and...

Visual attention and stability

In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as complete as introspection would lead us to believe. We attend to only a few items at...

The Pupillary Light Response Reveals the Focus of Covert Visual Attention

The pupillary light response is often assumed to be a reflex that is not susceptible to cognitive influences. In line with recent converging evidence, we show that this reflexive view is incomplete, and that the pupillary light response is modulated by covert visual attention: Covertly attending to a bright area causes a pupillary constriction, relative to attending to a dark...

Evidence for the predictive remapping of visual attention

When attending an object in visual space, perception of the object remains stable despite frequent eye movements. It is assumed that visual stability is due to the process of remapping, in which retinotopically organized maps are updated to compensate for the retinal shifts caused by eye movements. Remapping is predictive when it starts before the actual eye movement. Until now...

OpenSesame: An open-source, graphical experiment builder for the social sciences

In the present article, we introduce OpenSesame, a graphical experiment builder for the social sciences. OpenSesame is free, open-source, and cross-platform. It features a comprehensive and intuitive graphical user interface and supports Python scripting for complex tasks. Additional functionality, such as support for eyetrackers, input devices, and video playback, is available...

Object-based eye movements: The eyes prefer to stay within the same object

The present study addressed the question of whether we prefer to make eye movements within or between objects. More specifically, when fixating one end of an object, are we more likely to make the next saccade within that same object or to another object? Observers had to discriminate small letters placed on rectangles similar to those used by Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994...

From reorienting of attention to biased competition: Evidence from hemifield effects

When a distractor was presented simultaneously with or directly following a target, it produced more interference when it was presented in the same visual hemifield as the target than when it was presented in the opposite visual field. This result is interpreted in terms of biased competition; there is more competition between stimuli when they are presented in the same visual...

ScanMatch: A novel method for comparing fixation sequences

We present a novel approach to comparing saccadic eye movement sequences based on the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm used in bioinformatics to compare DNA sequences. In the proposed method, the saccade sequence is spatially and temporally binned and then recoded to create a sequence of letters that retains fixation location, time, and order information. The comparison of two letter...