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Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study?

Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help...

Autofluorescence microscopy for paired-matched morphological and molecular identification of individual chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vectors of scrub typhus

Sungvornyothin, Daniel H. Paris. Funding acquisition: Daniel H. Paris. Methodology: Rawadee Kumlert, Tippawan Anantatat, Daniel H. Paris. Project administration: Daniel H. Paris. Resources: Serge Morand ... Morand, Anchana Prasartvit, Benjamin L. Makepeace, Sungsit Sungvornyothin, Daniel H. Paris. Visualization: Rawadee Kumlert, Kittipong Chaisiri, Tippawan Anantatat, Alexandr A. Stekolnikov, Serge Morand

Fundamental Factors Determining the Nature of Parasite Aggregation in Hosts

The distribution of parasites in hosts is typically aggregated: a few hosts harbour many parasites, while the remainder of hosts are virtually parasite free. The origin of this almost universal pattern is central to our understanding of host-parasite interactions; it affects many facets of their ecology and evolution. Despite this, the standard statistical framework used to...

Correction: What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands

-Cas Serge Morand Jacques Guillot OPEN ACCESS Upon re-examination of the samples included in this study, the authors have established that Cal6 is Apodemus flavicollis and not Apodemus sylvaticus as

Potential Parasite Transmission in Multi-Host Networks Based on Parasite Sharing

Epidemiological networks are commonly used to explore dynamics of parasite transmission among individuals in a population of a given host species. However, many parasites infect multiple host species, and thus multi-host networks may offer a better framework for investigating parasite dynamics. We investigated the factors that influence parasite sharing – and thus potential...

Endogenous murine leukemia retroviral variation across wild European and inbred strains of house mouse

Serge Morand Camila J. Mazzoni 0 Alfred L. Roca Alex D. Greenwood 0 0 Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research , Alfred-Kowalke-Straße 17, 10315 Berlin , Germany Background: Endogenous murine ... domesticus wild caught in Corsica (Mmd1) and mainland France (Mmd2) was generated as part of research by Johan Michaux and Serge Morand on mammals from the western Mediterranean islands [23, 24]. All animal

A Continuum of Specialists and Generalists in Empirical Communities

Understanding the persistence of specialists and generalists within ecological communities is a topical research question, with far-reaching consequences for the maintenance of functional diversity. Although theoretical studies indicate that restricted conditions may be necessary to achieve co-occurrence of specialists and generalists, analyses of larger empirical (and species...

A Quantitative Prioritisation of Human and Domestic Animal Pathogens in Europe

Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic...

New biogeographical and morphological information on Physaloptera ngoci Le-Van-Hoa, 1961 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) in South-east Asian rodents

During a study of the helminth fauna of 1,643 rodents trapped along the Mekong River (Thailand, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia) in 2008–2011, the spirurid nematode Physaloptera ngoci Le-Van-Hoa, 1961 was recovered with an overall prevalence of 2.8%. Based on the original description, it was identified in nine of 23 different Murinae host species and is here...

Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter

Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking...

Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites

Although competitive speciation is more and more regarded as a plausible mechanism for sympatric speciation of non-parasite species, virtually no empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite...

Detection of Orientia sp. DNA in rodents from Asia, West Africa and Europe

Morand 5 6 Carine Brouat 4 Ambroise Dalecky 4 8 Khalilou B 7 Nathalie Charbonnel 2 Muriel Vayssier-Taussat 3 0 INRA, GABI , Sigenae, Domaine de Vilvert, Jouy en Josas 78352 , France 1 INRA, EpiA , Clermont

Identification of an Unclassified Paramyxovirus in Coleura afra: A Potential Case of Host Specificity

Bats are known to harbor multiple paramyxoviruses. Despite the creation of two new genera, Aquaparamyxovirus and Ferlavirus, to accommodate this increasing diversity, several recently isolated or characterized viruses remain unclassified beyond the subfamily level. In the present study, among 985 bats belonging to 6 species sampled in the Belinga caves of Gabon, RNA of an...

Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

part of a larger project involving Serge Morand and Johan Michaux (the CERoPath project, Community Ecology of Rodents and their Pathogens in a changing environment, www.ceropath.org). All rodent samples

What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands

Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and...

Bat Distribution Size or Shape as Determinant of Viral Richness in African Bats

The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral...

Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across...

Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto M and S molecular form larvae to an aquatic predator in Burkina Faso

Abdoulaye Diabat Serge Morand Frdric Simard Background: Predation of aquatic immature stages has been identified as a major evolutionary force driving habitat segregation and niche partitioning in the

Contrasted evolutionary histories of two Toll-like receptors (Tlr4 and Tlr7) in wild rodents (MURINAE)

Background In vertebrates, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that genes encoding proteins involved in pathogen-recognition by adaptive immunity (e.g. MHC) are subject to intensive diversifying selection. On the other hand, the role and the type of selection processes shaping the evolution of innate-immunity genes are currently far less clear. In this study we analysed the...