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Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India

Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional...

Intra-household evaluations of alcohol abuse in men with depression and suicide in women: A cross-sectional community-based study in Chennai, India

Background Harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented for drinkers, and adverse effects are also reported for the physical and emotional well-being of family members, with evidence often originating from either drinkers or their families in clinic-based settings. This study evaluates intra-household associations between alcohol abuse in men, and depression and suicidal...

What do Indian children drink when they do not receive water? Statistical analysis of water and alternative beverage consumption from the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey

Background Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water. However, little is known about what children drink when there is no clean water. We investigated the prevalence of receiving no water and what Indian children drink instead. Methods We analysed children’s beverage consumption using representative data from India’s National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006...

Statins and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: cohort study using the UK clinical practice pesearch datalink

Background There is strong evidence of reductions in major vascular events from statins across all cardiovascular risk categories. However, trials of statin therapy have provided conflicting results regarding statin use and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aimed to assess the effect of statins on T2DM development. Method We carried out a population-based cohort study using the Clinical...

Associations between active travel and adiposity in rural India and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Background Data on use and health benefits of active travel in rural low- and middle- income country settings are sparse. We aimed to examine correlates of active travel, and its association with adiposity, in rural India and Bangladesh. Methods Cross sectional study of 2,122 adults (≥18 years) sampled in 2011–13 from two rural sites in India (Goa and Chennai) and one in...

Urban-Rural Differences in Bone Mineral Density: A Cross Sectional Analysis Based on the Hyderabad Indian Migration Study

Background Fracture risk is rising in countries undergoing rapid rural to urban migration, but whether this reflects an adverse effect of urbanization on intrinsic bone strength, as reflected by bone mineral density (BMD), is currently unknown. Methods Lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) BMD, and total body fat and lean mass, were obtained from DXA scans performed in the...

Socio-Demographic Inequalities in the Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in India: Analysis of Nationally-Representative Survey Data

Background Hypertension is a major contributing factor to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease in India. Small studies suggest high, and increasing, prevalence especially in urban areas, with poor detection and management, but national data has been lacking. The aim of the current study was to use nationally-representative survey data to examine socio-demographic...

Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups

Background Evidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP) is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the combined home health education (HHE) and trained general practitioner (GP) intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than...

Why Do Thin People Have Elevated All-Cause Mortality? Evidence on Confounding and Reverse Causality in the Association of Adiposity and COPD from the British Women’s Heart and Health Study

Low adiposity has been linked to elevated mortality from several causes including respiratory disease. However, this could arise from confounding or reverse causality. We explore the association between two measures of adiposity (BMI and WHR) with COPD in the British Women’s Heart and Health Study including a detailed assessment of the potential for confounding and reverse...

Comment on: Chauhan et al. (2010) Impact of Common Variants of PPARG, KCNJ11, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A, IGF2BP2, and CDKAL1 on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in 5,164 Indians. Diabetes;59:2068–2074

-2074 Vipin Gupta 0 Shah Ebrahim 0 0 REFERENCES 1. Chauhan G , Spurgeon CJ, Tabassum R, Bhaskar S, Kulkarni SR, Mahajan A, Chavali S, Kumar MVK, Prakash S, Dwivedi OP, Ghosh S , Yajnik CS, Tandon N

Do Girls Have a Nutritional Disadvantage Compared with Boys? Statistical Models of Breastfeeding and Food Consumption Inequalities among Indian Siblings

Background India is the only nation where girls have greater risks of under-5 mortality than boys. We test whether female disadvantage in breastfeeding and food allocation accounts for gender disparities in mortality. Methods and Findings Secondary, publicly available anonymized and de-identified data were used; no ethics committee review was required. Multivariate regression and...

Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population

Background To investigate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among adult men and women in India consuming different types of vegetarian diets compared with those consuming non-vegetarian diets. Methods We used cross-sectional data of 156,317 adults aged 20–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey (2005–06). Association between types of...

Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets – the Indian Migration Study (IMS)

: Chittaranjan Yajnik; Bristol: George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben Shlomo; London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine: Shah Ebrahim, Sanjay Kinra. 1. World Health Organization: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical

The Association between a Vegetarian Diet and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Factors in India: The Indian Migration Study

; Bangalore: Anura V. Kurpad, Mario Vaz, A.V. Bharathi, Murali Mohan; Pune: Chittaranjan Yajnik; Bristol: George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben Shlomo; London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine: Shah Ebrahim, Sanjay

Unintended effects of statins from observational studies in the general population: systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Efficacy of statins has been extensively studied, with much less information reported on their unintended effects. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on unintended effects is often insufficient to support hypotheses generated from observational studies. We aimed to systematically assess unintended effects of statins from observational studies in general...

Associations between diet, physical activity and body fat distribution: a cross sectional study in an Indian population

Ebrahim Sanjay Kinra KV Radha Krishna Bharati Kulkarni Yoav Ben-Shlomo Ulf Ekelund Jonathan CK Wells Hannah Kuper 0 St George's University , London , UK Background: Obesity is a growing health problem in

Averting Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in India through Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxation: An Economic-Epidemiologic Modeling Study

In this modeling study, Sanjay Basu and colleagues estimate the potential health effects of a sugar-sweetened beverage taxation among various sub-populations in India over the period 2014 to 2023. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Dietary Salt Reduction and Cardiovascular Disease Rates in India: A Mathematical Model

Ebrahim 0 Thiruma V. Arumugam, University of Queensland, Australia 0 1 Department of Medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, 2

Manufacturing Epidemics: The Role of Global Producers in Increased Consumption of Unhealthy Commodities Including Processed Foods, Alcohol, and Tobacco

In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, David Stuckler and colleagues report that unhealthy packaged foods are being consumed rapidly in low- and middle-income countries, consistent with rapid expansion of multinational food companies into emerging markets and fueling obesity and chronic disease epidemics.