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Functional genomics analysis reveals the biosynthesis pathways of important cellular components (alginate and fucoidan) of Saccharina

Although alginate and fucoidan are unique cellular components and have important biological significance in brown algae, and many possible involved genes are present in brown algal genomes, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have not been fully revealed. Both polysaccharides may play important roles in the evolution of multicellular brown algae, but specific and in-depth...

Transforming growth factor β1 enhances heme oxygenase 1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts by inhibiting microRNA 519b synthesis

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1...

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Six Economic Traits Using an F2 Population of the Hybrid from Saccharina longissima and Saccharina japonica

Saccharina (Laminaria) is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Previously, four genetic linkage maps of Saccharina have been constructed and five QTLs have been identified. However, they were not enough for its breeding. In this work, Saccharina longissima (♀) and Saccharina japonica (♂), which showed obvious differences in morphology and genetics, were applied in...

Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two...

Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida

In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of...

Serum lipids and associated factors of dyslipidemia in the adult population in Shenzhen

0 Hong-Shan Chi 0 Jian Xu 0 0 Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control , No.2021, Buxin Rd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518020 , P.R. China Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the most important

Phylogeny of C4-Photosynthesis Enzymes Based on Algal Transcriptomic and Genomic Data Supports an Archaeal/Proteobacterial Origin and Multiple Duplication for Most C4-Related Genes

Both Calvin-Benson-Bassham (C3) and Hatch-Slack (C4) cycles are most important autotrophic CO2 fixation pathways on today’s Earth. C3 cycle is believed to be originated from cyanobacterial endosymbiosis. However, studies on evolution of different biochemical variants of C4 photosynthesis are limited to tracheophytes and origins of C4-cycle genes are not clear till now. Our...

Modulating the function of human serine racemase and human serine dehydratase by protein engineering

d-Serine is a co-agonist of N-methyl d-aspartate, a glutamate receptor, which is a major excitatory neurotransmitter receptor in the brain. Human serine racemase (hSR) and serine dehydratase (hSDH) are two important pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes that synthesize and degrade d-serine, respectively. hSR and hSDH have significant sequence homology (28% identity) and are...

Diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease: A Comparison between Open Biopsy and Minimally Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Core Biopsy

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a self-limited disease without any need of surgical treatments. Sampling of tissue is the only invasive procedure during the clinical course. However, the standard sampling procedure with accuracy, minimal invasiveness, and esthetic maintenance has not been established yet. In this study, a retrospective review of clinical utility and...

Complete Sequences of the Mitochondrial DNA of the Wild Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis and Two Mutagenic Cultivated Breeds (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was sequenced (25883 bp) and mapped to a circular model. The A+T composition was 72.5%. Forty six genes and two potentially functional open reading frames were identified. They include 24 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 20 tRNA genes and 2 ORFs (orf60, orf142). There is considerable sequence synteny across...

CTGF Increases IL-6 Expression in Human Synovial Fibroblasts through Integrin-Dependent Signaling Pathway

Background Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2) is an inflammatory mediator, and shows elevated levels in regions of severe injury and inflammatory diseases. CTGF is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). However, the relationship between CTGF and IL-6 in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is mostly unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings OASFs showed...

Leptin Induces IL-6 Expression through OBRl Receptor Signaling Pathway in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

BackgroundLeptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Leptin is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and synovium. However, the relationship between leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) remains obscure. Methodology...

β5 Integrin Up-Regulation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes Cell Motility in Human Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers...

Neisseria conserved protein DMP19 is a DNA mimic protein that prevents DNA binding to a hypothetical nitrogen-response transcription factor

DNA mimic proteins occupy the DNA binding sites of DNA-binding proteins, and prevent these sites from being accessed by DNA. We show here that the Neisseria conserved hypothetical protein DMP19 acts as a DNA mimic. The crystal structure of DMP19 shows a dsDNA-like negative charge distribution on the surface, suggesting that this protein should be added to the short list of known...

KRAS Mutation Is a Predictor of Oxaliplatin Sensitivity in Colon Cancer Cells

Molecular biomarkers to determine the effectiveness of targeted therapies in cancer treatment have been widely adopted in colorectal cancer (CRC), but those to predict chemotherapy sensitivity remain poorly defined. We tested our hypothesis that KRAS mutation may be a predictor of oxaliplatin sensitivity in CRC. KRAS was knocked-down in KRAS-mutant CRC cells (DLD-1G13D and...