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The relationship between depression and cognitive function in adults with cardiovascular risk: Evidence from a randomised attention-controlled trial

the men and women participating in the 45 and Up Study and Conceptualization: Sharon L. Naismith, Ian B. Hickie, Nicholas Glozier. Data curation: Daniel J. Biddle, Nicholas Glozier. Formal analysis ... : Haley M. LaMonica, Daniel J. Biddle. Funding acquisition: Sharon L. Naismith, Ian B. Hickie, Nicholas Glozier. Investigation: Sharon L. Naismith, Ian B. Hickie, Nicholas Glozier. Methodology: Sharon L

Circadian rhythmicity in emerging mood disorders: state or trait marker?

Background Circadian rhythm disturbances overlap with the symptoms of mood episodes and may trigger or prolong mood symptoms. There is limited research on the role of circadian disturbances in mood disorders in young people and/or first episode cases of unipolar and bipolar disorders. Methods Actigraphy was undertaken for about 14 days in 63 post-pubertal individuals aged 13–25...

The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion...

Psychological distress and quality of life in older persons: relative contributions of fixed and modifiable risk factors

Background With a rapidly ageing population and increasing life expectancy, programs directed at improving the mental health and quality of life (QOL) of older persons are extremely important. This issue may be particularly relevant in the aged-care residential sector, where very high rates of depression and poor QOL are evident. This study aims to investigate the fixed and...

The Sleep Or Mood Novel Adjunctive therapy (SOMNA) trial: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating an internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy program for insomnia on outcomes of standard treatment for depression in men

Background Insomnia is a significant risk factor for depression onset, can result in more disabling depressive illness, and is a common residual symptom following treatment cessation that can increase the risk of relapse. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia has demonstrated efficacy and acceptability to men who are less likely than women to seek help in...

Delayed circadian phase is linked to glutamatergic functions in young people with affective disorders: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

Background While the association between affective disorders and sleep and circadian disturbance is well established, little is known about the neurobiology underpinning these relationships. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship between a marker of circadian rhythm and neuronal integrity (N-Acetyl Aspartate, NAA), oxidative stress (glutathione, GSH) and neuronal...

A preliminary study of aged care facility staff indicates limitations in awareness of the link between depression and physical morbidity

Background It is important to understand the complex inter-relationship between depression and physical illness in order to plan and provide quality health care services for older persons and reduce suffering and early mortality. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of age-care staff of the link between physical morbidity and depression. Methods One hundred and...

Manipulating the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms to improve clinical management of major depression

Background Clinical psychiatry has always been limited by the lack of objective tests to substantiate diagnoses and a lack of specific treatments that target underlying pathophysiology. One area in which these twin failures has been most frustrating is major depression. Due to very considerable progress in the basic and clinical neurosciences of sleep-wake cycles and underlying...

Objective Measurement of Daytime Napping, Cognitive Dysfunction and Subjective Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease

IntroductionSleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel...

Evaluating differential developmental trajectories to adolescent-onset mood and psychotic disorders

Background It is an open question as to whether differential developmental trajectories, potentially representing underlying pathophysiological processes, can form the basis of a more useful typology in young persons who present for mental health care. Methods A cohort of 605 young people was recruited from youth mental health services that target the early phases of anxiety...

Differential Neural Activation Patterns in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Freezing of Gait in Response to Concurrent Cognitive and Motor Load

Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing...

Distress and disability in young adults presenting to clinical services with mood disorders

Background Distress and/or dysfunction are well established as key reasons for help-seeking. We explore the characteristics of groups defined by high or low distress or disability in young people with unipolar depression (UP) or bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Individuals aged 12 to 25 years presenting to youth mental health services for the first time with a primary diagnosis of...

Mismatch Negativity/P3a Complex in Young People with Psychiatric Disorders: A Cluster Analysis

Background We have recently shown that the event-related potential biomarkers, mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a, are similarly impaired in young patients with schizophrenia- and affective-spectrum psychoses as well as those with bipolar disorder. A data driven approach may help to further elucidate novel patterns of MMN/P3a amplitudes that characterise distinct subgroups in...

Frontal lobe changes occur early in the course of affective disorders in young people

Background More severe and persistent forms of affective disorders are accompanied by grey matter loss in key frontal and temporal structures. It is unclear whether such changes precede the onset of illness, occur early in the course or develop gradually with persistence or recurrence of illness. A total of 47 young people presenting with admixtures of depressive and psychotic...

Variability of Stepping during a Virtual Reality Paradigm in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with and without Freezing of Gait

Sharon L. Naismith 0 Simon J. G. Lewis 0 Hemachandra Reddy, Oregon Health & Science University, United States of America 0 1 Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney , Sydney, NSW

Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study

Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular...

Clinical classification in mental health at the cross-roads: which direction next?

Background After 30 years of consensus-derived diagnostic categories in mental health, it is time to head in new directions. Those categories placed great emphasis on enhanced reliability and the capacity to identify them via standardized checklists. Although this enhanced epidemiology and health services planning, it failed to link broad diagnostic groupings to underlying...

Correlating anterior insula gray matter volume changes in young people with clinical and neurocognitive outcomes: an MRI study

Background The anterior insula cortex is considered to be both the structural and functional link between experience, affect, and behaviour. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown changes in anterior insula gray matter volume (GMV) in psychosis, bipolar, depression and anxiety disorders in older patients, but few studies have investigated insula GMV changes in young...

Microstructural White Matter Changes in the Corpus Callosum of Young People with Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

To date, most studies of white matter changes in Bipolar Disorder (BD) have been conducted in older subjects and with well-established disorders. Studies of young people who are closer to their illness onset may help to identify core neurobiological characteristics and separate these from consequences of repeated illness episodes or prolonged treatment. Diffusion tensor imaging...

Neuropsychological and Socio-Occupational Functioning in Young Psychiatric Outpatients: A Longitudinal Investigation

Background Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. Methods At baseline, 183 young psychiatric...