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Marek’s disease in chickens: a review with focus on immunology

Marek’s disease (MD), caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable ...

Characterization of Innate Responses Induced by PLGA Encapsulated- and Soluble TLR Ligands In Vitro and In Vivo in Chickens

Natural or synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands trigger innate responses by interacting with distinct TLRs. TLR ligands can thus serve as vaccine adjuvants or stand-alone antimicrobial agents. One of the limitations of TLR ligands for clinical application is their short half-life and rapid clearance from the body. In the current study, encapsulation of selected TLR ligands in ...

1α,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 Modulates Avian T Lymphocyte Functions without Inducing CTL Unresponsiveness

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vitamin D) is a naturally synthesized fat soluble vitamin shown to have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and cancer prevention properties in human and murine models. Here, we studied the effects of Vitamin D on the functional abilities of avian T lymphocytes using chicken Interferon (IFN)-γ ELISPOT assay, BrdU proliferation assay, Annexin V apoptosis ...

Evaluation of a polysaccharide conjugate vaccine to reduce colonization by Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens

Background Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Symptoms range from mild gastroenteritis to dysentery. Contaminated chicken meat is the most common cause of infection. Broiler chickens become colonized with high numbers of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract, but do not become clinically ill. Vaccination of broiler chicks to control ...

TLR Ligands Induce Antiviral Responses in Chicken Macrophages

Chicken macrophages express several receptors for recognition of pathogens, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) derived from bacterial or viral pathogens leading to the activation of macrophages. Macrophages play a critical role in immunity against viruses, including influenza viruses. The present study was designed to ...

Pathogenicity and Cytokine Gene Expression Pattern of a Serotype 4 Fowl Adenovirus Isolate

Hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), a recently emerged disease of chickens, is caused by some strains of fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4). In this study, a Canadian FAdV-4 isolate, designated as FAdV-4 ON1, was evaluated for pathogenicity after oral and intramuscular (im) infection of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. Pathogenicity was evaluated by observation of ...

Comparison of innate immune agonists for induction of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells of cattle

Bovine respiratory disease is a complex of bacterial and viral infections of economic and welfare importance to the beef industry. Although tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) has microbicidal activity against bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, risk factors for bovine respiratory disease including BVDV and stress (glucocorticoids) have been shown to inhibit ...

Selected Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterial Isolates with the Capacity to Reduce Salmonella Translocation and Virulence Gene Expression in Chickens

Background Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. Methodology/Principal ...

Toll-like receptor ligands induce the expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 in chicken CD4+ T cells

Shayan Sharif 0 0 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph , Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 , Canada Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved

Suppression of Immunodominant Antitumor and Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Responses by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-degrading enzyme known to suppress antitumor CD8+ T cells (TCD8). The role of IDO in regulation of antiviral TCD8 responses is far less clear. In addition, whether IDO controls both immunodominant and subdominant TCD8 is not fully understood. This is an important question because the dominance status of tumor- and virus-specific ...

Characterization of Chicken Thrombocyte Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

Thrombocytes are the avian equivalent to mammalian platelets. In addition to their hemostatic effects, mammalian platelets rely in part on pattern recognition receptors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLR), to detect the presence of pathogens and signal the release of certain cytokines. Ligands for TLRs include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is bound by TLR4, as well as ...

Identification of a Dual-Specific T Cell Epitope of the Hemagglutinin Antigen of an H5 Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

Sharif 0 Derya Unutmaz, New York University School of Medicine, United States of America 0 1 Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph , Guelph, Ontario , Canada , 2 Department of Microbiology and