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“Putting on My Best Normal”: Social Camouflaging in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

Child and Youth Mental Health Collaborative at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Simon Baron-Cohen was supported by the Autism Research Trust

Reality Monitoring and Metamemory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

Studies of reality monitoring (RM) often implicate medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in distinguishing internal and external information, a region linked to autism-related deficits in social and self-referential information processing, executive function, and memory. This study used two RM conditions (self-other; perceived-imagined) to investigate RM and metamemory in adults with ...

Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions. DSM-5 - Peter E. Langdon and Simon Baron-Cohen are joint senior authors ... Skelly), University of East Anglia. We are grateful to the late Professor Malcolm Adams, who originally co-supervised this research, and to Dr. Bonnie Auyeung for helpful discussions. Professor Simon Baron

Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People

This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in a ‘big data’ sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst ...

Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and ...

Testing the ‘Extreme Female Brain’ Theory of Psychosis in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder with or without Co-Morbid Psychosis

. The Consortium members are in alphabetical order: Anthony J. Bailey (Oxford), Simon Baron-Cohen (Cambridge), Patrick F. Bolton (IoP), Edward T. Bullmore (Cambridge), Sarah Carrington (Oxford), Marco

Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

Suckling 4 8 Edward T. Bullmore 3 4 8 Francesca Happé 7 MRC AIMS Consortium Declan G. M. Murphy 6 Simon Baron-Cohen 2 8 0 Department of Psychology and Center for Applied Neuroscience, University of Cyprus ... ), Simon Baron-Cohen (Cambridge), Patrick F. Bolton (IoP), Edward T. Bullmore (Cambridge), Sarah Carrington (Oxford), Marco Catani (IoP), Bhismadev Chakrabarti (Cambridge), Michael C. Craig (IoP), Eileen M

Repetition Suppression in Ventral Visual Cortex Is Diminished as a Function of Increasing Autistic Traits

Repeated viewing of a stimulus causes a change in perceptual sensitivity, known as a visual aftereffect. Similarly, in neuroimaging, repetitions of the same stimulus result in a reduction in the neural response, known as repetition suppression (RS). Previous research shows that aftereffects for faces are reduced in both children with autism and in first-degree relatives. With ...

The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test: Complete Absence of Typical Sex Difference in ~400 Men and Women with Autism

The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test (Eyes test) is an advanced test of theory of mind. Typical sex difference has been reported (i.e., female advantage). Individuals with autism show more difficulty than do typically developing individuals, yet it remains unclear how this is modulated by sex, as females with autism have been under-represented. Here in a large, non-male-biased ...

A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome

Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a ...

Semi-Metric Topology of the Human Connectome: Sensitivity and Specificity to Autism and Major Depressive Disorder

Introduction The human functional connectome is a graphical representation, consisting of nodes connected by edges, of the inter-relationships of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) time-series measured by MRI from regions encompassing the cerebral cortices and, often, the cerebellum. Semi-metric analysis of the weighted, undirected connectome distinguishes an edge as either ...

Attenuation of Typical Sex Differences in 800 Adults with Autism vs. 3,900 Controls

Sex differences have been reported in autistic traits and systemizing (male advantage), and empathizing (female advantage) among typically developing individuals. In individuals with autism, these cognitive-behavioural profiles correspond to predictions from the “extreme male brain” (EMB) theory of autism (extreme scores on autistic traits and systemizing, below average on ...

Direct Gaze Elicits Atypical Activation of the Theory-of-Mind Network in Autism Spectrum Conditions

Eye contact plays a key role in social interaction and is frequently reported to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). Despite the importance of direct gaze, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging in ASC has generally focused on paradigms using averted gaze. The current study sought to determine the neural processing of faces displaying direct ...

Reduced functional connectivity within and between ‘social’ resting state networks in autism spectrum conditions

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) have difficulties in social interaction and communication, which is reflected in hypoactivation of brain regions engaged in social processing, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala and insula. Resting state studies in ASC have identified reduced connectivity of the default mode network (DMN), which includes mPFC, ...

Brain Routes for Reading in Adults with and without Autism: EMEG Evidence

Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically ‘sounding out’ words suggests that differences might exist in ...

Subgrouping the Autism “Spectrum": Reflections on DSM-5

supported by the Medical Research Council, UK ( Simon Baron-Cohen is supported by the Wellcome Trust ( and the Medical Research Council, UK. The

A Genome Wide Association Study of Mathematical Ability Reveals an Association at Chromosome 3q29, a Locus Associated with Autism and Learning Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Mathematical ability is heritable, but few studies have directly investigated its molecular genetic basis. Here we aimed to identify specific genetic contributions to variation in mathematical ability. We carried out a genome wide association scan using pooled DNA in two groups of U.K. samples, based on end of secondary/high school national academic exam achievement: high (n = 419) ...

Psychological Correlates of Handedness and Corpus Callosum Asymmetry in Autism: The left Hemisphere Dysfunction Theory Revisited

Rightward cerebral lateralization has been suggested to be involved in the neuropathology of autism spectrum conditions. We investigated functional and neuroanatomical asymmetry, in terms of handedness and corpus callosum measurements in male adolescents with autism, their unaffected siblings and controls, and their associations with executive dysfunction and symptom severity. ...

Atypical Integration of Motion Signals in Autism Spectrum Conditions

-Cohen 0 Jason Jeremy Sinclair Barton, University of British Columbia, Canada 0 1 Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2 Laboratory of Brain

Can emotion recognition be taught to children with autism spectrum conditions?

Simon Baron-Cohen 0 Ofer Golan 0 Emma Ashwin 0 0 Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University , Douglas House, 18B Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH , UK Children with