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51 papers found.
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Effect of screening for type 2 diabetes on risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a controlled trial among 139,075 individuals diagnosed with diabetes in Denmark between 2001 and 2009

Aims/hypothesis There is continuing debate about the net benefits of population screening for type 2 diabetes. We compared the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality among incident cases of type 2 diabetes in a screened group with those in an unscreened group. Methods In this register-based non-randomised controlled trial, eligible individuals were all men and women ...

Impact of metformin on cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomised trials among people with type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Metformin is the most-prescribed oral medication to lower blood glucose worldwide. Yet previous systematic reviews have raised doubts about its effectiveness in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, the most costly complication of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically identify and pool randomised trials reporting cardiovascular outcomes in which the effect ...

Screening for type 2 diabetes: do screen-detected cases fare better?

Aims/hypothesis We aimed to investigate whether diabetes cases detected through screening have better health outcomes than clinically detected cases in a population-based cohort of adults who were eligible to be screened for diabetes at 10 year intervals. Methods The Västerbotten Intervention Programme is a community- and individual-based public health programme in Västerbotten ...

Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rate and cardiovascular events: a controlled trial among 1,912,392 Danish adults

Aims/hypothesis Health check programmes for chronic disease have been introduced in a number of countries. However, there are few trials assessing the benefits and harms of these screening programmes at the population level. In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the effect of population-based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and ...

Does Training and Support of General Practitioners in Intensive Treatment of People with Screen-Detected Diabetes Improve Medication, Morbidity and Mortality in People with Clinically-Diagnosed Diabetes? Investigation of a Spill-Over Effect in a Cluster RCT

Introduction Very few studies have examined the potential spill-over effect of a trial intervention in general practice. We investigated whether training and support of general practitioners in the intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes improved rates of redeemed medication, morbidity and mortality in people with clinically-diagnosed diabetes. Methods This is a ...

Repeat Cardiovascular Risk Assessment after Four Years: Is There Improvement in Risk Prediction?

Background Framingham risk equations are widely used to predict cardiovascular disease based on health information from a single time point. Little is known regarding use of information from repeat risk assessments and temporal change in estimated cardiovascular risk for prediction of future cardiovascular events. This study was aimed to compare the discrimination and risk ...

Prospective associations between sedentary time, physical activity, fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary time, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiometabolic risk factors over 4 years in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes. Methods Among 308 adults ...

Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate ...

Physical Activity Maintenance in the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sport and Lifestyle Activities in British Youth

Background Promoting physical activity in youth is important for health, but existing physical activity interventions have had limited success. We aimed to inform intervention design by i) describing drop-out, continuation and uptake of specific activities over the transition to adolescence; and ii) examining Variety (number of different activities/week) and Frequency (number of ...

Predictors of change in objectively measured and self-reported health behaviours among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: longitudinal results from the ADDITION-Plus trial cohort

Background There is limited evidence about predictors of health behaviour change in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess change in health behaviours over one year and to identify predictors of behaviour change among adults with screen-detected and recently clinically diagnosed diabetes. Methods ADDITION-Plus was a randomised controlled trial of a ...

More of the same or a change of scenery: an observational study of variety and frequency of physical activity in British children

Background Physical activity is important for children’s health, but successful physical activity promotion is challenging. Whether performing many different types of activities (Variety) is associated with higher physical activity independent of the number of activity sessions (Frequency) is unknown, but this information could inform physical activity promotion and public health ...

Which Behavior Change Techniques are Associated with Changes in Physical Activity, Diet and Body Mass Index in People with Recently Diagnosed Diabetes?

Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards Authors Nelli Hankonen, Stephen Sutton, A. Toby Prevost, Rebecca K. Simmons, Simon J. Griffin, Ann Louise Kinmonth, and Wendy Hardeman declare that they have no

Individual, socio-cultural and environmental predictors of uptake and maintenance of active commuting in children: longitudinal results from the SPEEDY study

Background Active commuting is prospectively associated with physical activity in children. Few longitudinal studies have assessed predictors of change in commuting mode. Purpose To investigate the individual, socio-cultural and environmental predictors of uptake and maintenance of active commuting in 10 year-old children. Methods Children were recruited in 2007 and followed-up 12 ...

Association between objectively assessed sedentary time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aim of our study was to examine the associations between sedentary time (SED-time), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods Individuals participating in the ...

Predictors of change differ for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity and for weekdays and weekends: a longitudinal analysis

Background Predictors of physical activity (PA) change are rarely investigated separately for different PA intensities and for weekdays/weekends. We investigated whether individual-level predictors of one-year change in objectively-measured physical activity differ for moderate PA (MPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) and for weekends and weekdays. Methods Accelerometer-assessed PA (mins) ...

Increasing objectively measured sedentary time increases clustered cardiometabolic risk: a 6 year analysis of the ProActive study

Aims/hypothesis We aimed to quantify the associations between change in objectively measured sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) times and self-reported television viewing over 6 years and change in a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (CCMR), including and excluding waist circumference (CCMR without adiposity component, CCMR no adip ), and its individual ...

Liver fat accumulation is associated with reduced hepatic insulin extraction and beta cell dysfunction in healthy older individuals

Background There is a well-established association between type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) secondary to excess accumulation of intrahepatic lipid (IHL), but the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to being associated with insulin resistance, NAFLD may be associated with relative beta-cell ...

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of physical activity perception in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes: results from a cross-sectional study

Background Physical activity (PA) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are generally low. Poor PA perception may impede healthy behaviour change in this high risk group. We describe (i) objective PA levels, (ii) the difference between objective and self-reported PA (‘PA disparity’) and the correlates of (iii) PA disparity and (iv) overestimation in recently diagnosed ...

Is a change in mode of travel to school associated with a change in overall physical activity levels in children? Longitudinal results from the SPEEDY study

Background Children who use active modes of travel (walking or cycling) to school are more physically active than those who use passive (motorised) modes. However, less is known on whether a change in mode of travel to school is associated with a change in children’s physical activity levels. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the association between change in mode of ...

Determinants of Change in Children’s Sedentary Time

Simon J. Griffin 0 Esther M. F. van 0 Sanja Stanojevic, Hospital for Sick Children, Canada 0 1 UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), Institute of Public Health , Cambridge , United Kingdom ... outside (girls) may contribute towards preventing the agerelated increase in sedentary time. - Funding: The work of Andrew J. Atkin, Kirsten Corder, Simon J. Griffin and Esther M. F. van Sluijs was