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HIV-1 Promoter Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Are Associated with Clinical Disease Severity

The large majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) markers of disease progression/severity previously identified have been associated with alterations in host genetic and immune responses, with few studies focused on viral genetic markers correlate with changes in disease severity. This study presents a cross-sectional/longitudinal study of HIV-1 single nucleotide ...

Functional properties of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Sp site III and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein site I

Background HIV-1 gene expression is driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR), which contains many binding sites shown to interact with an array of host and viral factors. Selective pressures within the host as well as the low fidelity of reverse transcriptase lead to changes in the relative prevalence of genetic variants within the HIV-1 genome, including the LTR, resulting in ...

Comparison of the Gene Expression Profiles of Human Fetal Cortical Astrocytes with Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Neural Stem Cells Identifies Human Astrocyte Markers and Signaling Pathways and Transcription Factors Active in Human Astrocytes

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) and have a multitude of functions that include maintenance of CNS homeostasis, trophic support of neurons, detoxification, and immune surveillance. It has only recently been appreciated that astrocyte dysfunction is a primary cause of many neurological disorders. Despite their importance in disease very ...

Contribution of genetic variation to transgenerational inheritance of DNA methylation

Background Despite the important role DNA methylation plays in transcriptional regulation, the transgenerational inheritance of DNA methylation is not well understood. The genetic heritability of DNA methylation has been estimated using twin pairs, although concern has been expressed whether the underlying assumption of equal common environmental effects are applicable due to ...

DNA methylation signatures of chronic low-grade inflammation are associated with complex diseases

Background Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. Results We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of ...

Regulation of HIV-1 transcription in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been shown to replicate productively in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, although replication occurs to a lesser extent than in infected T cells. As cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage become differentiated and activated and subsequently travel to a variety of end organs, they become a source of infectious virus and ...

Defining Differential Genetic Signatures in CXCR4- and the CCR5-Utilizing HIV-1 Co-Linear Sequences

The adaptation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) to an array of physiologic niches is advantaged by the plasticity of the viral genome, encoded proteins, and promoter. CXCR4-utilizing (X4) viruses preferentially, but not universally, infect CD4+ T cells, generating high levels of virus within activated HIV-1-infected T cells that can be detected in regional lymph nodes ...

DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life

Background DNA methylation levels change with age. Recent studies have identified biomarkers of chronological age based on DNA methylation levels. It is not yet known whether DNA methylation age captures aspects of biological age. Results Here we test whether differences between people’s chronological ages and estimated ages, DNA methylation age, predict all-cause mortality in ...

Genetic Determinants of Circulating Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Levels and Their Association With Glycemic Traits

Their Association With Glycemic Traits Christian Herder Marja-Liisa Nuotio Sonia Shah Stefan Blankenberg Eric J. Brunner Maren Carstensen Christian Gieger Harald Grallert Antti Jula Mika Kähönen Johannes

Use of Allele-Specific FAIRE to Determine Functional Regulatory Polymorphism Using Large-Scale Genotyping Arrays

Following the widespread use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), focus is turning towards identification of causal variants rather than simply genetic markers of diseases and traits. As a step towards a high-throughput method to identify genome-wide, non-coding, functional regulatory variants, we describe the technique of allele-specific FAIRE, utilising large-scale ...

Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Polymorphisms Affect mRNA Splicing, HDL Levels, and Sex-Dependent Cardiovascular Risk

Polymorphisms in and around the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene have been associated with HDL levels, risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), and response to therapy. The mechanism of action of these polymorphisms has yet to be defined. We used mRNA allelic expression and splice isoform measurements in human liver tissues to identify the genetic variants affecting ...

Population Genomics of Cardiometabolic Traits: Design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium

Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide ...

Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart

Catherine A. Risebro Richelle G. Searles Athalie A. D. Melville Elisabeth Ehler Nipurna Jina Sonia Shah Jacky Pallas Mike Hubank Miriam Dillard Natasha L. Harvey Robert J. Schwartz Kenneth R. Chien

Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart

Catherine A. Risebro Richelle G. Searles Athalie A. D. Melville Elisabeth Ehler Nipurna Jina Sonia Shah Jacky Pallas Mike Hubank Miriam Dillard Natasha L. Harvey Robert J. Schwartz Kenneth R. Chien

Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array

Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ∼2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals ...