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Correction: Induction of TLR-2 and TLR-5 Expression by Helicobacter pylori Switches cagPAI-Dependent Signalling Leading to the Secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α

Sabine Brandt Joseph Madassery Steffen Backert - In Panel A of Fig 6, the blot images for the GAPDH lanes in the HEK293-TLR2 and HEK293-TLR5 panels were erroneously duplicated. Please see Figs 10 and 11

Helicobacter pylori CagL Y58/E59 Mutation Turns-Off Type IV Secretion-Dependent Delivery of CagA into Host Cells

The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is a major virulence determinant of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. The CagL protein is a specialized adhesin of the corresponding T4SS pilus, which establishes initial contact with the integrin β1 receptor on host target cells. Recent studies proposed that Y58 and E59 amino acid polymorphisms in CagL increase the virulence of H. pylori ...

A Specific A/T Polymorphism in Western Tyrosine Phosphorylation B-Motifs Regulates Helicobacter pylori CagA Epithelial Cell Interactions

Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the human stomach, with mixed roles in human health. The CagA protein, a key host-interaction factor, is translocated by a type IV secretion system into host epithelial cells, where its EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) are recognized by host cell kinases, leading to multiple host cell signaling cascades. The CagA TPMs have been ...

Systematic Analysis of Phosphotyrosine Antibodies Recognizing Single Phosphorylated EPIYA-Motifs in CagA of Western-Type Helicobacter pylori Strains

The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infections is determined by multiple host-pathogen interactions that may develop to chronic gastritis, and sometimes peptic ulcers or gastric cancer. Highly virulent strains encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that delivers the effector protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation ...

Induction of TLR-2 and TLR-5 Expression by Helicobacter pylori Switches cagPAI-Dependent Signalling Leading to the Secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α

Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for developing gastritis, gastric ulcer, and even gastric cancer. Virulent strains carry the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) encoding a type-IV secretion system (T4SS) for injecting the CagA protein. However, mechanisms of sensing this pathogen through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and downstream signalling pathways in the development of ...

Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger

Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron ...

Microtubules as Platforms for Assaying Actin Polymerization In Vivo

The actin cytoskeleton is continuously remodeled through cycles of actin filament assembly and disassembly. Filaments are born through nucleation and shaped into supramolecular structures with various essential functions. These range from contractile and protrusive assemblies in muscle and non-muscle cells to actin filament comets propelling vesicles or pathogens through the ...