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Prion protein cleavage fragments regulate adult neural stem cell quiescence through redox modulation of mitochondrial fission and SOD2 expression

Neurogenesis continues in the post-developmental brain throughout life. The ability to stimulate the production of new neurones requires both quiescent and actively proliferating pools of neural stem cells (NSCs). Actively proliferating NSCs ensure that neurogenic demand can be met, whilst the quiescent pool makes certain NSC reserves do not become depleted. The processes...

The Prion Protein N1 and N2 Cleavage Fragments Bind to Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidic Acid; Relevance to Stress-Protection Responses

Internal cleavage of the cellular prion protein generates two well characterised N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2. These fragments have been shown to bind to anionic phospholipids at low pH. We sought to investigate binding with other lipid moieties and queried how such interactions could be relevant to the cellular functions of these fragments. Both N1 and N2 bound...

Prion protein “gamma-cleavage”: characterizing a novel endoproteolytic processing event

Pathology, The University of Melbourne , Parkville, VIC 3010 , Australia 2 & Steven J. Collins 3 Institute of Brain , Behaviour and Mental Health , Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of

Cytosolic caspases mediate mislocalised SOD2 depletion in an in vitro model of chronic prion infection

Layla Sinclair Victoria Lewis Steven J. Collins Cathryn L. Haigh Oxidative stress as a contributor to neuronal death during prion infection is supported by the fact that various oxidative damage

Glycosaminoglycan sulfation determines the biochemical properties of prion protein aggregates

Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, to a misfolded isoform called PrPSc. Although PrPSc is a necessary component of the infectious prion, additional factors, or cofactors, have been shown to contribute to the efficient formation of transmissible PrPSc. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are...

The prion protein regulates beta-amyloid-mediated self-renewal of neural stem cells in vitro

The beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the Aβ-oligomer receptor, prion protein (PrP), both influence neurogenesis. Using in vitro murine neural stem cells (NSCs), we investigated whether Aβ and PrP interact to modify neurogenesis. Aβ imparted PrP-dependent changes on NSC self-renewal, with PrP-ablated and wild-type NSCs displaying increased and decreased cell growth, respectively. In...

Cellular Prion Protein Expression Is Not Regulated by the Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain

There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrPC, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP), through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrPC which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition...

Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres) conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC), with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering...

A Genome Wide Association Study Links Glutamate Receptor Pathway to Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Risk

We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study in 434 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and 1939 controls from the United Kingdom, Germany and The Netherlands. The findings were replicated in an independent sample of 1109 sCJD and 2264 controls provided by a multinational consortium. From the initial GWA analysis we selected 23 SNPs for further genotyping in...

Loss of Maternal CTCF Is Associated with Peri-Implantation Lethality of Ctcf Null Embryos

CTCF is a highly conserved, multifunctional zinc finger protein involved in critical aspects of gene regulation including transcription regulation, chromatin insulation, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and higher order chromatin organization. Such multifunctional properties of CTCF suggest an essential role in development. Indeed, a previous report on maternal...

Glycosaminoglycan Sulphation Affects the Seeded Misfolding of a Mutant Prion Protein

Background The accumulation of protease resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrPres) is a key pathological feature of prion diseases. Polyanions, including RNA and glycosaminoglycans have been identified as factors that contribute to the propagation, transmission and pathogenesis of prion disease. Recent studies have suggested that the contribution of these cofactors to...

Retinoic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide induce growth inhibition and tissue transglutaminase through different signal transduction pathways in mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 cells)

4-Hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid with minimal toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics during long-term administration to patients in clinical trials. Since 4-HPR binds poorly to the retinoic acid receptors, the issue of whether 4-HPR exerts its biological actions via classical retinoid receptor pathways remains to be resolved. We have previously reported...