Advanced search    

Search: authors:"Sungano Mharakurwa"

31 papers found.
Use AND, OR, NOT, +word, -word, "long phrase", (parentheses) to fine-tune your search.

Pilot testing of dipsticks as point-of-care assays for rapid diagnosis of poor-quality artemisinin drugs in endemic settings

Background Good-quality artemisinin drugs are essential for malaria treatment, but increasing prevalence of poor-quality artemisinin drugs in many endemic countries hinders effective management of malaria cases. Methods To develop a point-of-care assay for rapid identification of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin drugs for resource-limited areas, we used specific monoclonal...

High prevalence of dhfr and dhps molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women of Nchelenge district, Northern Zambia

Background Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) in most African countries, including Zambia. However, malaria is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women despite reports of greater than 50% of women taking at least two doses of SP in IPTp. Studies have shown that...

High burden of malaria infection in pregnant women in a rural district of Zambia: a cross-sectional study

Charles Michelo 1 Sungano Mharakurwa 4 5 James Chipeta 3 R. Matthew Chico 0 0 Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Selection for chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum by wild Anopheles arabiensis in Southern Zambia

Background The emergence of parasite drug resistance, especially Plasmodium falciparum, persists as a major obstacle for malaria control and elimination. To develop effective public health containment strategies, a clear understanding of factors that govern the emergence and spread of resistant parasites in the field is important. The current study documents selection for...

Reduction in Malaria Incidence following Indoor Residual Spraying with Actellic 300 CS in a Setting with Pyrethroid Resistance: Mutasa District, Zimbabwe

Background More than half of malaria cases in Zimbabwe are concentrated in Manicaland Province, where seasonal malaria epidemics occur despite intensified control strategies. Recently, high levels of pyrethroid and carbamate resistance were detected in Anopheles funestus, the major malaria vector in eastern Zimbabwe. In response, a single round of indoor residual spraying (IRS...

Comparison of a PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic test and PCR for malaria in a low prevalence setting in rural southern Zambia: implications for elimination

Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detecting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) antigen are used to identify individuals with Plasmodium falciparum infection even in low transmission settings seeking to achieve elimination. However, these RDTs lack sensitivity to detect low-density infections, produce false negatives for P. falciparum strains lacking pfhrp2 gene and do not...

Pre-amplification methods for tracking low-grade Plasmodium falciparum populations during scaled-up interventions in Southern Zambia

Background Malaria is receding in many endemic countries with intervention scale -up against the disease. However, this resilient scourge may persist in low-grade submicroscopic infections among semi-immune members of the population, and be poised for possible resurgence, creating challenges for detection and assessment of intervention impact. Parasite genotyping methods, such as...

Changes in the burden of malaria following scale up of malaria control interventions in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe

Background To better understand trends in the burden of malaria and their temporal relationship to control activities, a survey was conducted to assess reported cases of malaria and malaria control activities in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Methods Data on reported malaria cases were abstracted from available records at all three district hospitals, three rural hospitals and 25...

Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research...

Malaria research challenges in low prevalence settings

The prevalence of malaria has reduced significantly in some areas over the past decade. These reductions have made local elimination possible and the research agenda has shifted to this new priority. However, there are critical issues that arise when studying malaria in low transmission settings, particularly identifying asymptomatic infections, accurate detection of individuals...

Improved assay to detect Plasmodium falciparum using an uninterrupted, semi-nested PCR and quantitative lateral flow analysis

William R Abrams 0 Cheryl A Barber 0 Daniel Malamud 0 Sungano Mharakurwa 0 Department of Basic Science, NYU College of Dentistry , New York, NY, 10010 , USA Background: A rapid, non-invasive, and

Association between malaria control and paediatric blood transfusions in rural Zambia: an interrupted time-series analysis

Background Blood transfusions can reduce mortality among children with severe malarial anaemia, but there is limited evidence quantifying the relationship between paediatric malaria and blood transfusions. This study explores the extent to which the use of paediatric blood transfusions is affected by the number of paediatric malaria visits and admissions. It assesses whether the...

Temporal and spatial patterns of serologic responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia

Background Critical to sustaining progress in malaria control is comprehensive surveillance to identify outbreaks and prevent resurgence. Serologic responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens can serve as a marker of recent transmission and serosurveillance may be feasible on a large scale. Methods Satellite images were used to construct a sampling frame for the random selection...

Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions

Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it...

Efficiency of Household Reactive Case Detection for Malaria in Rural Southern Zambia: Simulations Based on Cross-Sectional Surveys from Two Epidemiological Settings

Background Case detection and treatment are critical to malaria control and elimination as infected individuals who do not seek medical care can serve as persistent reservoirs for transmission. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times...

Early detection of malaria foci for targeted interventions in endemic southern Zambia

Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's...

Distinction of Plasmodium falciparum recrudescence and re-infection by MSP2 genotyping: A caution about unstandardized classification criteria

Background Plasmodium falciparum genotyping with molecular polymorphic markers is widely employed to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection in antimalarial drug efficacy monitoring programmes. However, limitations occur on agarose gel DNA measurements used to resolve the polymorphisms. Without empirical data, the current distinction of pre- and post-treatment bands, as...