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Correction: Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania

Chilagane Beatrice Mwaipopo Minna- Liisa RajamaÈ ki Susan Nchimbi-Msolla Paul J. R. Njau Deusdedith R. Mbanzibwa Jari P. T. Valkonen Fig 4 incorrectly appears in black and white. Please see the corrected Fig

Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, ...

Mixed Infections of Four Viruses, the Incidence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Fleck Virus (Betaflexiviridae) Isolates in Wild Species and Sweetpotatoes in Uganda and Evidence of Distinct Isolates in East Africa

Viruses infecting wild flora may have a significant negative impact on nearby crops, and vice-versa. Only limited information is available on wild species able to host economically important viruses that infect sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas). In this study, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV; Carlavirus, Betaflexiviridae) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; ...

Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean ...

Bilevel Parameter Learning for Higher-Order Total Variation Regularisation Models

Quito Award No. PIS 12-14, MATHAmSud project SOCDE “Sparse Optimal Control of Differential Equations” and the Leverhulme Trust project on “Breaking the non-convexity barrier”. While in Quito, T. Valkonen

Graphical genotyping as a method to map Ny (o,n)sto and Gpa5 using a reference panel of tetraploid potato cultivars

Key message The method of graphical genotyping is applied to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars to visualize haplotype sharing. The method allowed to map genes involved in virus and nematode resistance. The physical coordinates of the amount of linkage drag surrounding these genes are easily interpretable. Abstract Graphical genotyping is a visually attractive and easily ...

Viral RNase3 Co-Localizes and Interacts with the Antiviral Defense Protein SGS3 in Plant Cells

Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3) that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA) and long dsRNA to fragments that are too ...

Analysis of Potato virus Y Coat Protein Epitopes Recognized by Three Commercial Monoclonal Antibodies

Background Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) causes substantial economic losses in solanaceous plants. Routine screening for PVY is an essential part of seed potato certification, and serological assays are often used. The commercial, commonly used monoclonal antibodies, MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130, recognize the viral coat protein (CP) of PVY and distinguish PVYN strains ...

Infection Cycle of Artichoke Italian Latent Virus in Tobacco Plants: Meristem Invasion and Recovery from Disease Symptoms

P. T. Valkonen 0 Donato Gallitelli 0 Biao Ding, The Ohio State University, United States of America 0 1 Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti, Universita` degli Studi di

Suppression of RNAi by dsRNA-Degrading RNaseIII Enzymes of Viruses in Animals and Plants

Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV) infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) ...

Preface

Potato Research 0 P. C. Struik ( 1 J. P. T. Valkonen Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki , P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki , Finland 2 ) Centre for Crop Systems Analysis

Small-RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Arctium tomentosum as a Natural Host of Alstroemeria virus X and a New Putative Emaravirus

Background Arctium species (Asteraceae) are distributed worldwide and are used as food and rich sources of secondary metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry, e.g., against avian influenza virus. RNA silencing is an antiviral defense mechanism that detects and destroys virus-derived double-stranded RNA, resulting in accumulation of virus-derived small RNAs (21–24 nucleotides) ...

Genetic Variability and Evolutionary Implications of RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes in RNA1 of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates Infecting Sweetpotato and Related Wild Species

BackgroundThe bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3), a putative hydrophobic protein (p7) and a 22-kDa protein (p22) from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render ...

Physcomitrella patens Has Kinase-LRR R Gene Homologs and Interacting Proteins

Plant disease resistance gene (R gene)-like sequences were screened from the Physcomitrella patens genome. We found 603 kinase-like, 475 Nucleotide Binding Site (NBS)-like and 8594 Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR)-like sequences by homology searching using the respective domains of PpC24 (Accession No. BAD38895), which is a candidate kinase-NBS-LRR (kinase-NL) type R-like gene, as a ...

Seasonal Phenology and Species Composition of the Aphid Fauna in a Northern Crop Production Area

Background The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost ...

Trends in Socioeconomic Disparities in Stroke Mortality in Six European Countries between 1981–1985 and 1991–1995

This study assesses whether stroke mortality trends have been less favorable among lower than among higher socioeconomic groups. Longitudinal data on mortality by socioeconomic status were obtained for Finland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, England/Wales, and Turin, Italy. Data covered the entire population or a representative sample. Stroke mortality rates were calculated for the ...