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Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Plasmodium vivax Control

, Imperial College London , London , United Kingdom 4 Universität Basel , Basel , Switzerland 5 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute , Basel , Switzerland 6 Authors' addresses: Michael T. White ... Howes are thanked for helpful discussions. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for helpful comments. Michael T. White was supported by a Population Health Scientist Fellowship from the MRC. This is an

Site amplification in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 M7.6 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

The 25th April 2015 M7.6 Gorkha earthquake caused significant damage to buildings and infrastructure in both Kathmandu and surrounding areas as well as triggering numerous, large landslides. This resulted in the loss of approximately 8600 lives. In order to learn how the impact of such events can be reduced on communities both in Nepal and elsewhere, the Earthquake Engineering ...

Integrated Taxonomy Reveals Hidden Diversity in Northern Australian Fishes: A New Species of Seamoth (Genus Pegasus)

T. White 0 1 0 Australian National Fish Collection, National Research Collections Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation , Hobart, Tasmania , Australia 1 Editor

The descriptive epidemiology of accelerometer-measured physical activity in older adults

Background Objectively measured physical activity between older individuals and between populations has been poorly described. We aimed to describe and compare the variation in accelerometry data in older UK (EPIC-Norfolk) and American (NHANES) adults. Methods Physical activity was measured by uniaxial accelerometry in 4,052 UK (49–91 years) and 3459 US older adults (49–85 years). ...

A New Species of Eagle Ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: An Example of the Critical Role Taxonomy Plays in Fisheries and Ecological Sciences

Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae) revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus ...

Synergism from combinations of infection-blocking malaria vaccines

Michael T White 0 David L Smith 0 Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College , London , UK Plasmodium falciparum infections

Modelling the contribution of the hypnozoite reservoir to Plasmodium vivax transmission

Plasmodium vivax relapse infections occur following activation of latent liver-stages parasites (hypnozoites) causing new blood-stage infections weeks to months after the initial infection. We develop a within-host mathematical model of liver-stage hypnozoites, and validate it against data from tropical strains of P. vivax. The within-host model is embedded in a P. vivax ...

Current development of carbon capture and storage in the UK: a non-technical review

This study reviewed the current situation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) development in the UK, mainly within the last 10 years in general. It looked at the positive ways to implement the CCS technologies, including the geological advantages, potential sector growth, financial incentives and the support in the policies. Current projects were brought forward together with ...

Transmission and Control of Plasmodium knowlesi: A Mathematical Modelling Study

Introduction Plasmodium knowlesi is now recognised as a leading cause of malaria in Malaysia. As humans come into increasing contact with the reservoir host (long-tailed macaques) as a consequence of deforestation, assessing the potential for a shift from zoonotic to sustained P. knowlesi transmission between humans is critical. Methods A multi-host, multi-site transmission model ...

Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea

Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. ...

The design and statistical power of treatment re-infection studies of the association between pre-erythrocytic immunity and infection with Plasmodium falciparum

Michael T White 0 Jamie T Griffin 0 Azra C Ghani 0 0 MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London , Norfolk Place, London W2

Teaching undergraduate students to draw phylogenetic trees: performance measures and partial successes

Background An in-depth understanding of the process and products of evolution is an essential part of a complete biology education. Phylogenetic trees are a very important tool for understanding evolution and presenting evolutionary data. Previous work by others has shown that undergraduate students have difficulty reading and interpreting phylogenetic trees. However, little is ...

Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS) – An Improved Rapid-Assessment Approach to Characterising Fish Landings in Developing Countries

The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was ...

Dynamics of the Antibody Response to Plasmodium falciparum Infection in African Children

Background. Acquired immune responses to malaria have widely been perceived to be short-lived, with previously immune individuals losing immunity when they move from malaria-endemic areas. However long-lived Plasmodium falciparum–specific antibody responses lasting for an individual's lifetime are frequently observed. Methods. We fit mathematical models of the dynamics of antibody ...

First quantitative high-throughput screen in zebrafish identifies novel pathways for increasing pancreatic β-cell mass

Guangliang Wang Surendra K. Rajpurohit Fabien Delaspre Steven L. Walker David T. White h Alexis Ceasrine Rejji Kuruvilla Ruo-jing Li Joong S. Shim Jun O. Liu g Michael J. Parsons Jeff S. First

Simulating inadequate dialysis and its correction using an individualized patient-derived nomogram

Colin T. White 0 ) Division of Nephrology, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia , 4480 Oak Street, ACB K4-151, V6H 3V4 Vancouver, BC, Canada Optimization of the peritoneal

Subclass responses and their half-lives for antibodies against EBA175 and PfRh2 in naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Background Plasmodium falciparum EBA175 and PfRh2 belong to two main families involved in parasite invasion, and both are potential vaccine candidates. Current knowledge is limited regarding which target antigens and subclasses of antibodies are actually important for protection, and how naturally acquired immunity is achieved. Methods Repeated blood samples were collected from ...

Negative Cross Resistance Mediated by Co-Treated Bed Nets: A Potential Means of Restoring Pyrethroid-Susceptibility to Malaria Vectors

Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spray programs for malaria control are entirely dependent on pyrethroid insecticides. The ubiquitous exposure of Anopheles mosquitoes to this chemistry has selected for resistance in a number of populations. This threatens the sustainability of our most effective interventions but no operationally practicable way of resolving the problem ...

Strategies for Understanding and Reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale Hypnozoite Reservoir in Papua New Guinean Children: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial and Mathematical Model

Background The undetectable hypnozoite reservoir for relapsing Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale malarias presents a major challenge for malaria control and elimination in endemic countries. This study aims to directly determine the contribution of relapses to the burden of P. vivax and P. ovale infection, illness, and transmission in Papua New Guinean children. Methods and Findings ...

Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

Background In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the ...