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Combining laboratory and mathematical models to infer mechanisms underlying kinetic changes in macrophage susceptibility to an RNA virus

Background Macrophages are essential to innate immunity against many pathogens, but some pathogens also target macrophages as routes to infection. The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that infects porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) causing devastating impact on global pig production. Identifying the cellular mechanisms that mediate PAM...

Quasispecies evolution of the prototypical genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus early during in vivo infection is rapid and tissue specific

, respectively. Interestingly, of these, three and four novel SNVs emerged Tahar Ait-Ali and Jean-Pierre Frossard contributed equally to this work. - Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV

Lawsonia intracellularis exploits β-catenin/Wnt and Notch signalling pathways during infection of intestinal crypt to alter cell homeostasis and promote cell proliferation

previous study by Smith et al. (2014) and provided by Dr. Tahar Ait-Ali with the authors' permission. B) Comparisons of HES1, OLFM4, SOX9 and AXIN2 mRNA transcript levels in pigs 325 (7 dpc), 352, 353 (14

Distinct functional enrichment of transcriptional signatures in pigs with high and low IFN-gamma responses after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

Little is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme...

Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected...

Genomic variation in macrophage-cultured European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Olot/91 revealed using ultra-deep next generation sequencing

Background Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of major economic impact worldwide. The etiologic agent of this disease is the PRRS virus (PRRSV). Increasing evidence suggest that microevolution within a coexisting quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV. Findings We developed a pipeline based on the ultra-deep...

Pig immune response to general stimulus and to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection: a meta-analysis approach

Background The availability of gene expression data that corresponds to pig immune response challenges provides compelling material for the understanding of the host immune system. Meta-analysis offers the opportunity to confirm and expand our knowledge by combining and studying at one time a vast set of independent studies creating large datasets with increased statistical power...

Comparative genomics of Toll-like receptor signalling in five species

Background Over the last decade, several studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting variation of immune related traits in mammals. Recent studies in humans and mice suggest that part of this variation may be caused by polymorphisms in genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling. In this project, we used a comparative approach to investigate the...

Structural and functional annotation of the porcine immunome

Ranjit Kataria Matthew Astley Eric Fritz 0 Charles Steward Mark Thomas Laurens Wilming Daisuke Toki Alan L Archibald Bertrand Bed'Hom 1 Dario Beraldi Ting-Hua Huang 0 Tahar Ait-Ali Frank Blecha Sara Botti