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264 papers found.
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-OMICS AND PROGNOSTIC MARKERS

BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas, the most common primary brain tumors in adults, still continue to have a predominantly fatal outcome. We previously cloned NPAS3 (neuronal PAS 3), a gene which is among the largest genes in the human genome and encodes a transcription factor. We recently discovered NPAS3 drives the progression of malignant astrocytomas as a tumor suppressor, by...

NEUROSURGICAL TREATMENTS

Patients with cancer are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). The purpose of this study was to review VTE development in patients undergoing craniotomy for a neoplasm, and to further analyze risk based on multiple pre-, intra-, and post-operative variables. We analyzed all consecutive patients at our institution during the years 1999-2010 who were admitted for...

IMMUNOTHERAPY/BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES

BACKGROUND: Patients with high grade gliomas (HGGs) routinely receive radiation (RT), temozolomide (TMZ), and glucocorticoids and 40% develop severe lymphopenia (lymphocyte counts <500 cells/mm3) 2-months after initiation of concurrent RT/TMZ (Grossman, 2011). The lymphopenia resulting from these three lymphotoxic therapies is associated with shorter survival from tumor...

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLGOY

BACKGROUND: Several studies have observed a change in MGMT silencing and IDH1 mutation in secondary glioblastomas (sGBMs). However, reports about the prognostic value of promoter methylation of the MGMT gene and IDH mutations in sGBMs are few in number. METHODS: The study involved primary and secondary tumor tissue samples from 89 GBMs pts (P/S: 42/47) diagnosed and treated...

Surveillance for Polio Eradication in the People's Republic of China

A case-based virus surveillance system for wild poliovirus in China was developed. By 1993, all 30 provincial immunization units and, by 1994, all 29 provincial laboratories were sending computerized data to the national level. In 1993, a county-level, computerized map was operationalized that permitted visual monitoring of the progress of the polio eradication program every...

Dose-effect Relationship of Dicentric and Ring Chromosomes in Lymphocytes of Individuals Living in the High Background Radiation Areas in China

Chromosomes of 39 healthy family members (3 generations from 13 families) living both in the high-level background radiation areas (HBRA) and the control areas (CA) were studied. Cumulative dose from birth to the time of blood sampling was estimated by calculating measured exposure rate in each individual. The cumulative doses ranged 30.9–358.9 and 6.0–59.2 mGy for HBRA and CA...

Comparison of nifedipine and metoprolol on collateral coronary blood flow in a swine model of chronic coronary obstruction and acute ischaemia during isoflurane anaesthesia

PurposeThis study compared the effects of nifedipine and metoprolol on collateral-dependent myocardial blood flow in a swine model of chronic coronary obstruction and acute ischaemia during isoflurane anaesthesia.MethodsCollateral coronary circulation was induced in 15 three-week-old piglets by banding of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). After 8–10 wk...

Effects of Colcemid Concentration on Chromosome Aberration Analysis in Human Lymphocytes

As a part of technical improvements of chromosome aberration analysis on human peripheral lymphocytes for biological radiation dosimetry, we examined the optimal conditions for the use of colcemid in chromosome preparation in order to obtain enough number of cells at metaphase in the first cell division. When treated with colcemid at concentrations below 0.01μg/ml from the...

Clinical and Immunological Characteristics of Patients with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection after Vaccination

Background. We followed a cohort of 773 individuals who received a monovalent vaccine against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Approximately 6 weeks after vaccination, 12 persons developed the disease. Methods. Three groups of subjects were studied (12 patients who had or had not received previous monovalent vaccine and 1 group of 49 control subjects who had previously been...

Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Developing Male Wistar(Han) Rat. I: No Decrease in Epididymal Sperm Count after a Single Acute Dose

It has been reported that fetal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes defects in the male reproductive system of the rat. We set out to replicate and extend these effects using a robust experimental design. Groups of 75 (control vehicle) or 55 (50, 200, or 1000 ng of TCDD/kg bodyweight) female Wistar(Han) rats were exposed to TCDD on gestational day (GD)15...

Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Developing Male Wistar(Han) Rat. II: Chronic Dosing Causes Developmental Delay

We have investigated whether fetal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes defects in the male reproductive system of the rat using chronically exposed rats to ensure continuous exposure of the fetus. Five- to six-week-old rats were exposed to control diet, or diet containing TCDD, to attain an average dose of 2.4, 8, and 46 ng TCDD/kg/day for 12 weeks...

Relationships between Tissue Levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mRNAs, and Toxicity in the Developing Male Wistar(Han) Rat

We compared the effects of a single acute dose, or chronic fetal exposure, to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the male reproductive system of the Wistar(Han) rat. Tissue samples were taken from dams on gestation day (GD)16 and GD21, and from offspring on postnatal days (PND)70 and 120. Steady-state concentration of TCDD was demonstrated in the chronic study: body...

A Truncation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor of the CRL:WI(Han) Rat Does Not Affect the Developmental Toxicity of TCDD

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is required for the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and so the AhR of CRL:WI and CRL:WI(Han) rats was characterized. Western blot showed AhR proteins of ∼110 and ∼97 kDa in individual rats from both strains. The AhR cDNA from a CRL:WI(Han) rat with the ∼110-kDa protein revealed a sequence that was identical to that of...

MiR-221 and miR-222 target PUMA to induce cell survival in glioblastoma

Background MiR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are frequently up-regulated in various types of human malignancy including glioblastoma. Recent studies have reported that miR-221/222 regulate cell growth and cell cycle progression by targeting p27 and p57. However the underlying mechanism involved in cell survival modulation of miR-221/222 remains elusive. Results Here we showed...

A Broadly Flavivirus Cross-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody that Recognizes a Novel Epitope within the Fusion Loop of E Protein

Flaviviruses are a group of human pathogenic, enveloped RNA viruses that includes dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses. Cross-reactive antibodies against Flavivirus have been described, but most of them are generally weakly neutralizing. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 2A10G6, was determined to have...

Natural Selection Affects Multiple Aspects of Genetic Variation at Putatively Neutral Sites across the Human Genome

Vinckenbosch Geng Tian Emilia Huerta-Sanchez Alison F. Feder Niels Grarup Torben Jrgensen Tao Jiang Daniel R. Witte Annelli Sandbaek Ines Hellmann Torsten Lauritzen Tor n H ns n Olu P rs n Jun W ng R smus Ni ls

Diabetic Nephropathy Is Accelerated by Farnesoid X Receptor Deficiency and Inhibited by Farnesoid X Receptor Activation in a Type 1 Diabetes Model

Xiaoxin X. Wang Tao Jiang Yan Shen Yupanqui Caldas Shinobu Miyazaki-Anzai Hannah Santamaria Cydney Urbanek Nathaniel Solis Pnina Scherzer Linda Lewis Frank J. Gonzalez Luciano Adorini Mark Pruzanski

Farnesoid X Receptor Modulates Renal Lipid Metabolism, Fibrosis, and Diabetic Nephropathy

Tao Jiang Xiaoxin X. Wang Pnina Scherzer Paul Wilson James Tallman Hideaki Takahashi Jinping Li Mieko Iwahashi Eileen Sutherland Lois Arend Moshe Levi - FXR activation 1) in regulating renal SREBP

Regulation of Renal Lipid Metabolism, Lipid Accumulation, and Glomerulosclerosis in FVBdb/db Mice With Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetic kidney disease has been associated with the presence of lipid deposits, but the mechanisms for the lipid accumulation have not been fully determined. In the present study, we found that db/db mice on the FVB genetic background with loss-of-function mutation of the leptin receptor (FVB-Leprdb mice or FVBdb/db) develop severe diabetic nephropathy, including...

The Wilms Tumor Gene, Wt1, Is Critical for Mouse Spermatogenesis via Regulation of Sertoli Cell Polarity and Is Associated with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia in Humans

Azoospermia is one of the major reproductive disorders which cause male infertility in humans; however, the etiology of this disease is largely unknown. In the present study, six missense mutations of WT1 gene were detected in 529 human patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), indicating a strong association between WT1 mutation and NOA. The Wilms tumor gene, Wt1, is...