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227 papers found.
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-OMICS AND PROGNOSTIC MARKERS

BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas, the most common primary brain tumors in adults, still continue to have a predominantly fatal outcome. We previously cloned NPAS3 (neuronal PAS 3), a gene which is among the largest genes in the human genome and encodes a transcription factor. We recently discovered NPAS3 drives the progression of malignant astrocytomas as a tumor suppressor, by...

NEUROSURGICAL TREATMENTS

Patients with cancer are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). The purpose of this study was to review VTE development in patients undergoing craniotomy for a neoplasm, and to further analyze risk based on multiple pre-, intra-, and post-operative variables. We analyzed all consecutive patients at our institution during the years 1999-2010 who were admitted for...

Dose-effect Relationship of Dicentric and Ring Chromosomes in Lymphocytes of Individuals Living in the High Background Radiation Areas in China

Chromosomes of 39 healthy family members (3 generations from 13 families) living both in the high-level background radiation areas (HBRA) and the control areas (CA) were studied. Cumulative dose from birth to the time of blood sampling was estimated by calculating measured exposure rate in each individual. The cumulative doses ranged 30.9–358.9 and 6.0–59.2 mGy for HBRA and CA...

Surveillance for Polio Eradication in the People's Republic of China

A case-based virus surveillance system for wild poliovirus in China was developed. By 1993, all 30 provincial immunization units and, by 1994, all 29 provincial laboratories were sending computerized data to the national level. In 1993, a county-level, computerized map was operationalized that permitted visual monitoring of the progress of the polio eradication program every...

IMMUNOTHERAPY/BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES

BACKGROUND: Patients with high grade gliomas (HGGs) routinely receive radiation (RT), temozolomide (TMZ), and glucocorticoids and 40% develop severe lymphopenia (lymphocyte counts <500 cells/mm3) 2-months after initiation of concurrent RT/TMZ (Grossman, 2011). The lymphopenia resulting from these three lymphotoxic therapies is associated with shorter survival from tumor...

Comparison of nifedipine and metoprolol on collateral coronary blood flow in a swine model of chronic coronary obstruction and acute ischaemia during isoflurane anaesthesia

Purpose This study compared the effects of nifedipine and metoprolol on collateral-dependent myocardial blood flow in a swine model of chronic coronary obstruction and acute ischaemia during isoflurane anaesthesia. Methods Collateral coronary circulation was induced in 15 three-week-old piglets by banding of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). After 8–10...

Effects of Colcemid Concentration on Chromosome Aberration Analysis in Human Lymphocytes

As a part of technical improvements of chromosome aberration analysis on human peripheral lymphocytes for biological radiation dosimetry, we examined the optimal conditions for the use of colcemid in chromosome preparation in order to obtain enough number of cells at metaphase in the first cell division. When treated with colcemid at concentrations below 0.01μg/ml from the...

Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Developing Male Wistar(Han) Rat. I: No Decrease in Epididymal Sperm Count after a Single Acute Dose

It has been reported that fetal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes defects in the male reproductive system of the rat. We set out to replicate and extend these effects using a robust experimental design. Groups of 75 (control vehicle) or 55 (50, 200, or 1000 ng of TCDD/kg bodyweight) female Wistar(Han) rats were exposed to TCDD on gestational day (GD)15...

Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Developing Male Wistar(Han) Rat. II: Chronic Dosing Causes Developmental Delay

We have investigated whether fetal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes defects in the male reproductive system of the rat using chronically exposed rats to ensure continuous exposure of the fetus. Five- to six-week-old rats were exposed to control diet, or diet containing TCDD, to attain an average dose of 2.4, 8, and 46 ng TCDD/kg/day for 12 weeks...

Relationships between Tissue Levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mRNAs, and Toxicity in the Developing Male Wistar(Han) Rat

We compared the effects of a single acute dose, or chronic fetal exposure, to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the male reproductive system of the Wistar(Han) rat. Tissue samples were taken from dams on gestation day (GD)16 and GD21, and from offspring on postnatal days (PND)70 and 120. Steady-state concentration of TCDD was demonstrated in the chronic study: body...

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLGOY

BACKGROUND: Several studies have observed a change in MGMT silencing and IDH1 mutation in secondary glioblastomas (sGBMs). However, reports about the prognostic value of promoter methylation of the MGMT gene and IDH mutations in sGBMs are few in number. METHODS: The study involved primary and secondary tumor tissue samples from 89 GBMs pts (P/S: 42/47) diagnosed and treated...

Clinical and Immunological Characteristics of Patients with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection after Vaccination

Background. We followed a cohort of 773 individuals who received a monovalent vaccine against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Approximately 6 weeks after vaccination, 12 persons developed the disease. Methods. Three groups of subjects were studied (12 patients who had or had not received previous monovalent vaccine and 1 group of 49 control subjects who had previously been...

A Truncation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor of the CRL:WI(Han) Rat Does Not Affect the Developmental Toxicity of TCDD

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is required for the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and so the AhR of CRL:WI and CRL:WI(Han) rats was characterized. Western blot showed AhR proteins of ∼110 and ∼97 kDa in individual rats from both strains. The AhR cDNA from a CRL:WI(Han) rat with the ∼110-kDa protein revealed a sequence that was identical to that of...

Regulation of Renal Lipid Metabolism, Lipid Accumulation, and Glomerulosclerosis in FVBdb/db Mice With Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetic kidney disease has been associated with the presence of lipid deposits, but the mechanisms for the lipid accumulation have not been fully determined. In the present study, we found that db/db mice on the FVB genetic background with loss-of-function mutation of the leptin receptor (FVB-Leprdb mice or FVBdb/db) develop severe diabetic nephropathy, including...

Farnesoid X Receptor Modulates Renal Lipid Metabolism, Fibrosis, and Diabetic Nephropathy

Tao Jiang Xiaoxin X. Wang Pnina Scherzer Paul Wilson James Tallman Hideaki Takahashi Jinping Li Mieko Iwahashi Eileen Sutherland Lois Arend Moshe Levi - FXR activation 1) in regulating renal SREBP

Natural Selection Affects Multiple Aspects of Genetic Variation at Putatively Neutral Sites across the Human Genome

Vinckenbosch Geng Tian Emilia Huerta-Sanchez Alison F. Feder Niels Grarup Torben Jrgensen Tao Jiang Daniel R. Witte Annelli Sandbaek Ines Hellmann Torsten Lauritzen Tor n H ns n Olu P rs n Jun W ng R smus Ni ls

Study of gene function based on spatial co-expression in a high-resolution mouse brain atlas

Background The Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) project systematically profiles three-dimensional high-resolution gene expression in postnatal mouse brains for thousands of genes. By unveiling gene behaviors at both the cellular and molecular levels, ABA is becoming a unique and comprehensive neuroscience data source for decoding enigmatic biological processes in the brain. Given the...

MiR-221 and miR-222 target PUMA to induce cell survival in glioblastoma

Background MiR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are frequently up-regulated in various types of human malignancy including glioblastoma. Recent studies have reported that miR-221/222 regulate cell growth and cell cycle progression by targeting p27 and p57. However the underlying mechanism involved in cell survival modulation of miR-221/222 remains elusive. Results Here we showed...

Diabetic Nephropathy Is Accelerated by Farnesoid X Receptor Deficiency and Inhibited by Farnesoid X Receptor Activation in a Type 1 Diabetes Model

Xiaoxin X. Wang Tao Jiang Yan Shen Yupanqui Caldas Shinobu Miyazaki-Anzai Hannah Santamaria Cydney Urbanek Nathaniel Solis Pnina Scherzer Linda Lewis Frank J. Gonzalez Luciano Adorini Mark Pruzanski

Identifying transcription factor binding sites through Markov chain optimization

Even though every cell in an organism contains the same genetic material, each cell does not express the same cohort of genes. Therefore, one of the major problems facing genomic research today is to determine not only which genes are differentially expressed and under what conditions, but also how the expression of those genes is regulated. The first step in determining...