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Editorial ‘Supplement DIZZYNET 2017’

vestibular disorders. She analyzed and named the medical condition “vestibular migraine” together with Thomas Brandt in 1999, which today is an established diagnosis and recognized as the a vestibular

Vestibular paroxysmia: a treatable neurovascular cross-compression syndrome

-Maximilians University , Munich , Germany 1 Institute for Clinical Neurosciences, Ludwig-Maximilians University , Munich , Germany 2 & Thomas Brandt 3 Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy) , Munich

Preventing opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: Rest your head and close your eyes?

Although opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is common and debilitating, its mechanism is still unclear. Recently, we suggested that opioids affect semicircular canal function and that this leads to a mismatch between canal input and other sensory information during head motion, which triggers OINV. Here, we assess if visual input is relevant for this mismatch. In a ...

DIZZYNET—a European network initiative for vertigo and balance research: visions and aims

Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo often receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. The most important reasons for this deplorable situation are insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, nonexistent standards in diagnostics and therapy, the relatively rare translations of basic science findings ...

Functional Plasticity after Unilateral Vestibular Midbrain Infarction in Human Positron Emission Tomography

The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., ...

Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: distressing partners for life

The course of illness, the degree of social impairment, and the rate of help-seeking behavior was evaluated in a sample of individuals with visual height intolerance (vHI) and acrophobia. On the basis of a previously described epidemiological sample representative of the German general population, 574 individuals with vHI were identified, 128 fulfilled the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria ...

Acute Unilateral Vestibular Failure Does Not Cause Spatial Hemineglect

Objectives Visuo-spatial neglect and vestibular disorders have common clinical findings and involve the same cortical areas. We questioned (1) whether visuo-spatial hemineglect is not only a disorder of spatial attention but may also reflect a disorder of higher cortical vestibular function and (2) whether a vestibular tone imbalance due to an acute peripheral dysfunction can also ...

“Taller and Shorter”: Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings

Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar ...

Visual Exploration during Locomotion Limited by Fear of Heights

Kugler, Erich Schneider and Thomas Brandt are shareholders of EyeSeeTec GmbH, manufacturer of the eyetracking equipment used in the study. There are no patents to declare. This does not alter the authors ... Brandt 0 Markus Lappe, University of Muenster, Germany 0 1 Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Munich , Munich, Germany , 2 German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, University of

Self-Efficacy Beliefs Are Associated with Visual Height Intolerance: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Hans-Peter 5 6 Kapfhammer 4 5 6 Thomas Brandt 1 3 5 6 0 Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometrics and Epidemiology (IBE), Ludwig-Maximilians Universita t Mu nchen , Marchioninistr. 17

Opioid-Induced Nausea Involves a Vestibular Problem Preventable by Head-Rest

Background and Aims Opioids are indispensable for pain treatment but may cause serious nausea and vomiting. The mechanism leading to these complications is not clear. We investigated whether an opioid effect on the vestibular system resulting in corrupt head motion sensation is causative and, consequently, whether head-rest prevents nausea. Methods Thirty-six healthy men (26.6±4.3 ...

The Gait Disorder in Downbeat Nystagmus Syndrome

Background Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a common form of acquired fixation nystagmus with key symptoms of oscillopsia and gait disturbance. Gait disturbance could be a result of impaired visual feedback due to the involuntary ocular oscillations. Alternatively, a malfunction of cerebellar locomotor control might be involved, since DBN is considered a vestibulocerebellar disorder. ...

Vestibular Loss and Balance Training Cause Similar Changes in Human Cerebral White Matter Fractional Anisotropy

Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that ...

N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus

An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial ...

Spatiotemporal Movement Planning and Rapid Adaptation for Manual Interaction

Many everyday tasks require the ability of two or more individuals to coordinate their actions with others to increase efficiency. Such an increase in efficiency can often be observed even after only very few trials. Previous work suggests that such behavioral adaptation can be explained within a probabilistic framework that integrates sensory input and prior experience. Even ...

Characterization of Neuronal Populations in the Human Trigeminal Ganglion and Their Association with Latent Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases such as facial palsy, vestibular neuritis or encephalitis. Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been ...

Pharmacotherapy of vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including nystagmus

We review current pharmacological treatments for peripheral and central vestibular disorders, and ocular motor disorders that impair vision, especially pathological nystagmus. The prerequisites for successful pharmacotherapy of vertigo, dizziness, and abnormal eye movements are the “4 D’s”: correct diagnosis, correct drug, appropriate dosage, and sufficient duration. There are ...

Episodic ataxia type 2

Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2) is a rare neurological disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance resulting from dysfunction of a voltage-gated calcium channel. It manifests with recurrent disabling attacks of imbalance, vertigo, and ataxia, and can be provoked by physical exertion or emotional stress. In the spell-free interval, patients present with central ocular motor ...