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Genetics of structural connectivity and information processing in the brain

Understanding the genetic factors underlying brain structural connectivity is a major challenge in imaging genetics. Here, we present results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of whole-brain white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural coherence measured using diffusion tensor imaging. Data from independent GWASs of 355 Swedish and 250 ...

Altered Brain Activation during Emotional Face Processing in Relation to Both Diagnosis and Polygenic Risk of Bipolar Disorder

Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable disorder with polygenic inheritance. Among the most consistent findings from functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies are limbic hyperactivation and dorsal hypoactivation. However, the relation between reported brain functional abnormalities and underlying genetic risk remains elusive. This is the first cross-sectional study ...

High-Expanding Cortical Regions in Human Development and Evolution Are Related to Higher Intellectual Abilities

Cortical surface area has tremendously expanded during human evolution, and similar patterns of cortical expansion have been observed during childhood development. An intriguing hypothesis is that the high-expanding cortical regions also show the strongest correlations with intellectual function in humans. However, we do not know how the regional distribution of correlations ...

Accelerating Cortical Thinning: Unique to Dementia or Universal in Aging?

Does accelerated cortical atrophy in aging, especially in areas vulnerable to early Alzheimer's disease (AD), unequivocally signify neurodegenerative disease or can it be part of normal aging? We addressed this in 3 ways. First, age trajectories of cortical thickness were delineated cross-sectionally (n = 1100) and longitudinally (n = 207). Second, effects of undetected AD on the ...

Nicotinic Receptor Gene CHRNA4 Interacts with Processing Load in Attention

Norwegian Research Council grant 177458/V50 to Thomas Espeseth. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing

Genetic Basis of a Cognitive Complexity Metric

Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap ...

Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric ...

A Genetic Deconstruction of Neurocognitive Traits in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Background Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy individuals and in the dysfunction observed in psychiatric disorders. Methods Sets of ...

Gene-Based Analysis of Regionally Enriched Cortical Genes in GWAS Data Sets of Cognitive Traits and Psychiatric Disorders

Background Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital ...

High Consistency of Regional Cortical Thinning in Aging across Multiple Samples

Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of cortical thickness and volume have shown age effects on large areas, but there are substantial discrepancies across studies regarding the localization and magnitude of effects. These discrepancies hinder understanding of effects of aging on brain morphometry, and limit the potential usefulness of MR in research on healthy ...

Interactive effects of APOE and CHRNA4 on attention and white matter volume in healthy middle-aged and older adults

, Virginia 2 THOMAS ESPESETH University of Oslo , Oslo, Norway 3 This research was supported in part by Norwegian Research Council Grant 154313/V50 to I.R. and by U.S. National Institute on Aging Grant AG19653

Variants in Doublecortin- and Calmodulin Kinase Like 1, a Gene Up-Regulated by BDNF, Are Associated with Memory and General Cognitive Abilities

Background Human memory and general cognitive abilities are complex functions of high heritability and wide variability in the population. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in mammalian memory formation. Methodology / Principal Finding Based on the identification of genes markedly up-regulated during BDNF-induced synaptic consolidation in the ...

The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

Duggirala & Thomas D. Dyer & Stefan Ehrlich & Carl Johan Ekman & Torbjrn Elvsshagen & Louise Emsell & Susanne Erk & Thomas Espeseth & Jesen Fagerness & Scott Fears & Iryna Fedko & Guilln Fernndez & Simon E