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Branching morphology, vascular bundle arrangement and ontogenetic development in leaf insertion zones and ramifications of three arborescent Araliaceae species

Key message A conspicuous ‘finger-like’ branching morphology is described for three arborescent Araliaceae species with a focus on the three-dimensional vascular bundle arrangement in leaf insertion and stem–branch attachment regions during ontogenetic development. Abstract The central aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the structure and development in leaf ...

Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines – Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants

Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘, Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic ...

Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae)

We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae). Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and ...

Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants

Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can ...

Structure-Function Relationships in Macadamia integrifolia Seed Coats – Fundamentals of the Hierarchical Microstructure

The shells/coats of nuts and seeds are often very hard to crack. This is particularly the case with Macadamia seed coats, known to exhibit astoundingly high strength and toughness. We performed an extensive materials science characterization of the complex hierarchical structure of these coats, using light and scanning electron microscopy in 2D as well as microCT for 3D ...

Comparative Study on Plant Latex Particles and Latex Coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and Three Euphorbia species

Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing ...

Functional morphology and biomechanics of branch–stem junctions in columnar cacti

Branching in columnar cacti features morphological and anatomical characteristics specific to the subfamily Cactoideae. The most conspicuous features are the pronounced constrictions at the branch–stem junctions, which are also present in the lignified vascular structures within the succulent cortex. Based on finite-element analyses of ramification models, we demonstrate that these ...

Investigating the rheological properties of native plant latex

Georg Bauer Christian Friedrich Carina Gillig Fritz Vollrath Thomas Speck Chris Holland 0 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford , South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK 1 Service Group 'Rheology

Quantitative and qualitative changes in primary and secondary stem organization of Aristolochia macrophylla during ontogeny: functional growth analysis and experiments

Tom Masselter 0 Thomas Speck 0 0 Plant Biomechanics Group, Botanic Garden, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology , Schanzlestr.1, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany The anatomy of young and old stems

Plant surfaces with cuticular folds are slippery for beetles

Bettina Prm () Robin Seidel Holger Florian Bohn Thomas Speck Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article

Structure, attachment properties, and ecological importance of the attachment system of English ivy (Hedera helix)

Root climbers such as English ivy (Hedera helix) rely on specialized adventitious roots for attachment, enabling the plants to climb on a wide range of natural and artificial substrates. Despite their importance for the climbing habit, the biomechanical properties of these specialized adventitious roots compared with standard roots and their performance in the attachment to ...

Structural and mechanical design of tissue interfaces in the giant reed Arundo donax

Markus Rggeberg () Ingo Burgert Thomas Speck Subject collections 0 Department of Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces , Potsdam, Germany 1 Faculty of Biology , Plant

Catapulting Tentacles in a Sticky Carnivorous Plant

Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed ‘active’ have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin’s early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera ...

Morphological aspects of self-repair of lesions caused by internal growth stresses in stems of Aristolochia macrophylla and Aristolochia ringens

This study reveals in detail the mechanism of self-repair during secondary growth in the vines Aristolochia macrophylla and Aristolochia ringens based on morphological data. For a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms during the self-repair of lesions in the sclerenchymatous cylinder of the stem, which are caused by internal growth stresses, a classification of ...

Always on the bright side: the climbing mechanism of Galium aparine

Galium aparine is a herbaceous climbing plant that attaches to host plants mainly via its leaves, which are covered by hooked trichomes. Although such hooks are found on both leaf surfaces, the leaves of G. aparine are mainly positioned upon the leaves of supporting plants and rarely beneath. In order to understand the mechanism underlying this observation, we have studied ...

The attachment strategy of English ivy: a complex mechanism acting on several hierarchical levels

Bjrn Melzer () Tina Steinbrecher Robin Seidel Oliver Kraft Ruth Schwaiger Thomas Speck Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections Receive free email alerts when new

Stiffness gradients in vascular bundles of the palm Washingtonia robusta

Palms can grow at sites exposed to high winds experiencing large dynamic wind and gust loads. Their stems represent a system of stiff fibrous elements embedded in the soft parenchymatous tissue. The proper design of the interface of the stiffening elements and the parenchyma is crucial for the functioning of the stem. The strategy of the palm to compromise between stiff fibre caps ...

Brittleness of twig bases in the genus Salix: fracture mechanics and ecological relevance

The twig bases within the genus Salix were investigated. Brittleness of twig bases as defined in the literature neither correlates with Young's modulus nor with growth strains, which were measured for S. alba, S. fragilis and S. ×rubens. For the species S. alba, S. appendiculata, S. eleagnos, S. fragilis, S. purpurea, S. triandra, S. viminalis, and S.×rubens, fracture surfaces of ...