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Developing a biostatistical support system in a resource-restricted academic institution in Africa: making it happen

Background In order to address and support biostatistics for health research, the Health Sciences Research Office of the University of the Witwatersrand sought to introduce training in biomedical statistics to sustain research and postgraduate education. The experiences encountered in setting up such statistical support in a limited resource, developing country are discussed here. ...

The prevalence of human papillomavirus infections and associated risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men in Cape Town, South Africa

Background We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated behavioural risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) attending a clinical service in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods MSM were enrolled at the Ivan Toms Centre for Men’s Health in Cape Town. A psychosocial and sexual behavioral risk questionnaire was completed for each ...

Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

Laetitia Charmaine Rispel 0 Tobias Chirwa 0 Centre for Health Policy & Medical Research Council Health Policy Research Group, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand

Nosocomial Outbreak of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in South Africa: A Case-Control Study

Objective New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Gram-negative bacteria have spread globally and pose a significant public health threat. There is a need to better define risk factors and outcomes of NDM-1 clinical infection. We assessed risk factors for nosocomial infection with NDM-1-producers and associated in-hospital mortality. Methods A matched case-control study was ...

A Review of the Study Designs and Statistical Methods Used in the Determination of Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Cohorts: 2002–2011

Background Research in the predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people has widely been reported in literature. Making an informed decision requires understanding the methods used. Objectives We present a review on study designs, statistical methods and their appropriateness in original articles reporting on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people ...

Comparison of morbidity and mortality of very low birth weight infants in a Central Hospital in Johannesburg between 2006/2007 and 2013

Background Health protocols need to be guided by current data on survival and benefits of interventions within the local context. Periodic clinical audits are required to inform and update health care protocols. This study aimed to review morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in 2013 compared with similar data from 2006/2007. Methods We performed a ...

The Association between Multiple Sources of Information and Risk Perceptions of Tuberculosis, Ntcheu District, Malawi

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main causes of death in developing countries. Awareness and perception of risk of TB could influence early detection, diagnosis and care seeking at treatment centers. However, perceptions about TB are influenced by sources of information. Aim This study aimed to determine the association between multiple sources of information, and ...

The Nkateko health service trial to improve hypertension management in rural South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Background South Africa has a high and rising prevalence of hypertension. Many affected individuals are not using medication, and few have controlled blood pressure. Until recently, primary care clinics focused on maternal and child health and management of acute conditions, but new government initiatives have shifted the focus to chronic diseases, including HIV/AIDS and ...

Levels of Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence among Sputum Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Attending Care at Zomba Central Hospital, Southern Malawi, 2007–2008

Background Despite great efforts to control Tuberculosis (TB), progress is compromised by low adherence to medication, leading to prolonged duration of infectiousness and continued transmission. Investigating low adherence is of high importance from TB programmatic perspective. Though data on actual days of missed treatment exist, the effect of such on TB cure rates has not been ...

Developmental outcome of very low birth weight infants in a developing country

Background Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; ...

Regional frequency analysis of rainfall extremes in Southern Malawi using the index rainfall and L-moments approaches

Rainfall extremes often result in the occurrence of flood events with associated loss of life and infrastructure in Malawi. However, an understanding of the frequency of occurrence of such extreme events either for design or disaster planning purposes is often limited by data availability at the desired temporal and spatial scales. Regionalisation, which involves “trading time for ...

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Central and Southern Malawi

Background Trachoma, one of the neglected tropical diseases is suspected to be endemic in Malawi. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in central and southern Malawi. Methodology/Principal Findings A population based survey conducted in randomly selected clusters in Chikwawa district (population 438,895), southern Malawi and Mchinji ...

Are Women Who Work in Bars, Guesthouses and Similar Facilities a Suitable Study Population for Vaginal Microbicide Trials in Africa?

Background A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials. Methodology/Principal Findings 1573 women aged 16–54 y working in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels, guesthouses or as local food-handlers were enrolled at ...