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Distribution of vesicle pools in cerebellar parallel fibre terminals after depression of ectopic transmission

. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Katharine L. Dobson, Tomas C. Bellamy. Data curation: Katharine L. Dobson, Zoe H. Smith, Tomas C. Bellamy. Formal analysis: Katharine L. Dobson, Zoe H. Smith, Tomas ... C. Bellamy. Funding acquisition: Tomas C. Bellamy. Investigation: Katharine L. Dobson. Methodology: Katharine L. Dobson, Tomas C. Bellamy. Project administration: Tomas C. Bellamy. Resources

Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK Received 27 February 2015; Accepted 28 May 2015 Academic Editor: Michel Baudry Copyright © 2015 Katharine L. Dobson and Tomas C ... . Bellamy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work

Glial Plasticity

Received 2 July 2015; Accepted 2 July 2015 Copyright © 2015 Tomas C. Bellamy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted ... that glial cells express a wide range of plasticity, which could impact on many aspects of neurophysiology. Clearly, the computational potential of these cells deserves further scrutiny. Tomas C

Plasticity of Neuron-Glial Transmission: Equipping Glia for Long-Term Integration of Network Activity

The capacity of synaptic networks to express activity-dependent changes in strength and connectivity is essential for learning and memory processes. In recent years, glial cells (most notably astrocytes) have been recognized as active participants in the modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, implicating these electrically nonexcitable cells in information...

Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling

Background Cerebellar parallel fibres release glutamate at both the synaptic active zone and at extrasynaptic sites—a process known as ectopic release. These sites exhibit different short-term and long-term plasticity, the basis of which is incompletely understood but depends on the efficiency of vesicle release and recycling. To investigate whether release of calcium from...

Stimulus Discrimination in Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons

Cerebellar Purkinje neurons fire spontaneously in the absence of synaptic input. Overlaid on this intrinsic activity, excitatory input from parallel fibres can add simple spikes to the output train, whereas inhibitory input from interneurons can introduce pauses. These and other influences lead to an irregular spike train output in Purkinje neurons in vitro and in vivo, supplying...

Control of Cerebellar Long-Term Potentiation by P-Rex-Family Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factors and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

Background Long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fibre–Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellum is a recently described and poorly characterized form of synaptic plasticity. The induction mechanism for LTP at this synapse is considered reciprocal to “classical” LTP at hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: kinases promote increased trafficking of AMPA receptors into the...

High-Throughput Analysis of Calcium Signalling Kinetics in Astrocytes Stimulated with Different Neurotransmitters

Astrocytes express a wide range of receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones that are coupled to increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, enabling them to detect activity in both neuronal and vascular networks. There is increasing evidence that astrocytes are able to discriminate between different Ca2+-linked stimuli, as the efficiency of some Ca2+ dependent processes...