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A Cohort Study of Health Care Workers to Assess Nosocomial Transmissibility of Nipah Virus, Malaysia, 1999

During 1998–1999, an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis occurred in Malaysia. To assess the possibility of nosocomial transmission, 338 health care workers (HCWs) exposed and 288 HCWs unexposed to outbreak-related patients were surveyed, and their serum samples were tested for anti–Nipah virus antibody. Needlestick injuries were reported by 12 (3%) HCWs, mucosal surface...

A Preliminary Assessment of Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness in Zambia

Background. Diarrhea is the third leading cause of child death in Zambia. Up to one-third of diarrhea cases resulting in hospitalization and/or death are caused by vaccine-preventable rotavirus. In January 2012, Zambia initiated a pilot introduction of the Rotarix live, oral rotavirus vaccine in all public health facilities in Lusaka Province. Methods. Between July 2012 and...

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Impact of Alternative Dosing Schedules on the Immune Response to Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Rural Ghanaian Infants

Background. The recommended schedule for receipt of 2-dose human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) coincides with receipt of the first and second doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (ie, 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively). Alternative schedules and additional doses of HRV have been proposed and may improve vaccine performance in low-income countries. Methods. In this...

A Retrospective Evaluation of Hospitalizations for Acute Gastroenteritis at 2 Sentinel Hospitals in Central Japan to Estimate the Health Burden of Rotavirus

BackgroundTwo rotavirus vaccines have recently been licensed for use in >80 countries worldwide but not in Japan. To assess the value of introducing rotavirus vaccination in Japan, data on the burden of rotavirus disease are needed MethodsTo describe the epidemiology of severe rotavirus disease among Japanese children aged <5 years, we examined retrospective demographic, clinical...

A qualitative assessment of factors influencing acceptance of a new rotavirus vaccine among health care providers and consumers

0 Mark Herring 4 Umesh D Parashar 2 0 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education , Oak Ridge, Tennessee , USA 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunizations and

All-Cause Gastroenteritis and Rotavirus-Coded Hospitalizations Among US Children, 2000–2009

Background. Rotavirus vaccine was recommended for US infants in 2006. We estimated baseline prevaccine burden and monitored postvaccine trends in gastroenteritis-coded and rotavirus-coded hospitalizations among US children. Methods. We analyzed data from the State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 29–44 US states over a 10-year period (2000–2009) to calculate gastroenteritis and...

Annual changes in rotavirus hospitalization rates before and after rotavirus vaccine implementation in the United States

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Minesh P. Shah, Umesh D. Parashar, Benjamin A. Lopman. Data curation: Rebecca M. Dahl. Formal analysis: Minesh P. Shah ... , Rebecca M. Dahl. Investigation: Minesh P. Shah, Umesh D. Parashar, Benjamin A. Lopman. Methodology: Minesh P. Shah, Rebecca M. Dahl, Benjamin A. Lopman. Software: Rebecca M. Dahl. Supervision: Umesh D

Anticipating rotavirus vaccines – a pre-vaccine assessment of incidence and economic burden of rotavirus hospitalizations among children < 5 year of age in Libya, 2012-13

Background Libya introduced rotavirus vaccine in October 2013. We examined pre-vaccine incidence of rotavirus hospitalizations and associated economic burden among children < 5 years in Libya to provide baseline data for future vaccine impact evaluations. Methods Prospective, hospital-based active surveillance for rotavirus was conducted at three public hospitals in two cities...

Assessing the Effectiveness and Public Health Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines after Introduction in Immunization Programs

Two new vaccines against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis that have high efficacy in middle- and high-income countries have recently been licensed in many countries worldwide. Clinical trials in low-income countries in Africa and Asia are ongoing. Experience gained through studies of natural rotavirus infection and the clinical trials for the current and previous rotavirus...

Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis in the Ambulatory Setting—United States, 2001–2009

Background. Gastroenteritis remains an important cause of morbidity in the United States. The burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in ambulatory US patients is not well understood. Methods. Cause-specified and cause-unspecified gastroenteritis emergency department (ED) and outpatient visits during July 2001–June 2009 were extracted from MarketScan insurance claim databases. By...

Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Human Infection with a New Zoonotic Paramyxovirus, Nipah Virus, during a 1998–1999 Outbreak of Severe Encephalitis in Malaysia

An outbreak of encephalitis affecting 265 patients (105 fatally) occurred during 1998–1999 in Malaysia and was linked to a new paramyxovirus, Nipah, that infected pigs, humans, dogs, and cats. Most patients were pig farmers. Clinically undetected Nipah infection was noted in 10 (6%) of 166 community-farm controls (persons from farms without reported encephalitis patients) and 20...

Correction: Impact of Withholding Breastfeeding at the Time of Vaccination on the Immunogenicity of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine—A Randomized Trial

Jessica A. Fleming SungSil Moon Umesh D. Parashar Baoming Jiang Monica M. McNeal Duncan Steele Zulfiqar Bhutta Anita K. M. Zaidi Supporting Information There are errors in S1 Fig. Please view the correct

Cost-Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination of Infants in Malawi: A Postintroduction Analysis Using Individual Patient–Level Costing Data

Background. Rotavirus vaccination reduces childhood hospitalization in Africa, but cost-effectiveness has not been determined using real-world effectiveness and costing data. We sought to determine monovalent rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness in Malawi, one of Africa's poorest countries and the first Gavi-eligible country to report disease reduction following introduction in...

Deaths of Children during an Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of the Disease

From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that usually included fever (in...

Development of Candidate Rotavirus Vaccines Derived from Neonatal Strains in India

The need for a rotavirus vaccine in India is based on the enormous burden associated with the >100,000 deaths due to rotavirus diarrhea that occur annually among Indian children. Two rotavirus strains identified during nosocomial outbreaks of rotavirus infection in New Delhi and Bangalore, India, more than a decade ago are being developed as live oral vaccines. Infected newborns...

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination Upon Childhood Hospitalizations in 3 US Counties, 2006–2009

Background. Routine rotavirus vaccination of US infants began in 2006. We conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 US counties to assess vaccine impact. Methods. Children <36 months old hospitalized with diarrhea and/or vomiting were enrolled from January through June each year during the period 2006–2009 and tested for...

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination: Comparing Predictions from Transmission Dynamic Models

Early observations from countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccination suggest that there may be indirect protection for unvaccinated individuals, but it is unclear whether these benefits will extend to the long term. Transmission dynamic models have attempted to quantify the indirect protection that might be expected from rotavirus vaccination in developed countries, but...

Early Evidence of Impact of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Togo

Togo introduced monovalent rotavirus vaccine starting 19 June 2014. We compared all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations during the prevaccine period (July 2008–June 2014) to 1 year after vaccine introduction (July 2014–June 2015). The proportion of children with AGE who tested positive for rotavirus declined from 53% (645...

Economic Costs of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis and Cost-Effectiveness of Vaccination in Developing Countries

BackgroundRotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We evaluated the economic burden of rotavirus and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination from the health care perspective MethodsEstimates were based on existing epidemiological data, cost estimates, vaccine coverage, and efficacy data, as well as hypothetical vaccine prices. Outcome measures...