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Hydrologic modeling: progress and future directions

Briefly tracing the history of hydrologic modeling, this paper discusses the progress that has been achieved in hydrologic modeling since the advent of computer and what the future may have in store for hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic progress can be described through the developments in data collection and processing, concepts and theories, integration with allied sciences...

Copula–entropy theory for multivariate stochastic modeling in water engineering

The copula–entropy theory combines the entropy theory and the copula theory. The entropy theory has been extensively applied to derive the most probable univariate distribution subject to specified constraints by applying the principle of maximum entropy. With the flexibility to model nonlinear dependence structure, parametric copulas (e.g., Archimedean, extreme value, meta...

Nonstationarities and At-site Probabilistic Forecasts of Seasonal Precipitation in the East River Basin, China

Seasonal precipitation changes under the influence of large-scale climate oscillations in the East River basin were studied using daily precipitation data at 29 rain stations during 1959–2010. Seasonal and global models were developed and evaluated for probabilistic precipitation forecasting. Generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape was used for at-site...

Entropy Theory for Streamflow Forecasting

Streamflow forecasting is used in river training and management, river restoration, reservoir operation, power generation, irrigation, and navigation. In hydrology, streamflow forecasting is often done using time series analysis. Although monthly streamflow time series are stochastic, they exhibit seasonal and periodic patterns. Therefore, streamflow forecasting entails modeling...

Simulating Crop Evapotranspiration Response under Different Planting Scenarios by Modified SWAT Model in an Irrigation District, Northwest China

Modelling crop evapotranspiration (ET) response to different planting scenarios in an irrigation district plays a significant role in optimizing crop planting patterns, resolving agricultural water scarcity and facilitating the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, the SWAT model was improved by transforming the evapotranspiration module. Then, the improved model was...

Probability distribution functions for unit hydrographs with optimization using genetic algorithm

A unit hydrograph (UH) of a watershed may be viewed as the unit pulse response function of a linear system. In recent years, the use of probability distribution functions (pdfs) for determining a UH has received much attention. In this study, a nonlinear optimization model is developed to transmute a UH into a pdf. The potential of six popular pdfs, namely two-parameter gamma...

Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of...

Genetic deletion of Wdr13 improves the metabolic phenotype of Lepr db/db mice by modulating AP1 and PPARγ target genes

; Leptin receptor; PPAR; Wdr13 - Vijay P. Singh and Chandrashekaran Gurunathan contributed equally to this study. Abbreviations AP Activator protein CCMB Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology GTT

Src Dependent Pancreatic Acinar Injury Can Be Initiated Independent of an Increase in Cytosolic Calcium

Several deleterious intra-acinar phenomena are simultaneously triggered on initiating acute pancreatitis. These culminate in acinar injury or inflammatory mediator generation in vitro and parenchymal damage in vivo. Supraphysiologic caerulein is one such initiator which simultaneously activates numerous signaling pathways including non-receptor tyrosine kinases such as of the Src...

IP3 Receptor Type 2 Deficiency Is Associated with a Secretory Defect in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell and an Accumulation of Zymogen Granules

Acute pancreatitis is a painful, life-threatening disorder of the pancreas whose etiology is often multi-factorial. It is of great importance to understand the interplay between factors that predispose patients to develop the disease. One such factor is an excessive elevation in pancreatic acinar cell Ca2+. These aberrant Ca2+ elevations are triggered by release of Ca2+ from...

Asymptomatic Infection with Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Disease-Endemic Area in Bihar, India

preparing the manuscript. Authors addresses: Roshan K. Topno, Vidya N. R. Das, Alok Ranjan, Krishna Pandey, Dharmender Singh, Nawin Kumar, Niyamat A. Siddiqui, Vijay P. Singh, Shreekant Kesari, Narendra

Response to Interferon-γ plus Pentavalent Antimony in Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis

One hundred fifty-six previously untreated Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis were treated with pentavalent antimony (Sb) alone for 30 days (group A), Sb plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) for 30 days (group B), or Sb plus IFN-γ for 15 days (group C). The purpose was to show that IFN-γ would increase the response to 30 days of Sb treatment and that short-course (15 days...

Failure of Pentavalent Antimony in Visceral Leishmaniasis in India: Report from the Center of the Indian Epidemic

In India, 320 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (209 in the state of Bihar and 11 in the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh) received identical pentavalent antimony (Sb) treatment. Sb induced long-term cure in 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%–42%) of those in Bihar versus 86% (95% CI, 79%–93%) of those in Uttar Pradesh. In Bihar, the center of the Indian epidemic...