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Evaluation of immune response to Hepatitis B vaccine in health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: an observational prospective study

Background Seroconversion rates reported after Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination globally ranges from 85–90%. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring HBV and non responders' rates after HBV vaccination were not reported previously in Pakistani HCWs. Therefore we evaluated immune response to HBV vaccine in HCWs at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. ...

Emergence of Carbapenem resistant Gram negative and vancomycin resistant Gram positive organisms in bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients: A descriptive study

Background This study was conducted to evaluate drug resistance amongst bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients with particular emphasis on emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species. Methods A descriptive study was performed by reviewing the blood culture reports from febrile neutropenic patients during the ...

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Children in an Urban Slum of Karachi

Background Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, lack of access to potable water and hot and humid tropical climate are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. The study aimed to estimate prevalence and identify ...

Increase in isolation of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing multidrug resistant non typhoidal Salmonellae in Pakistan

Background Increasing resistance to quinolones and ceftriaxone in non typhoidal Salmonellae is a global concern. Resistance to quinolone and 3rd generation cephalosporin amongst non typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) from Pakistan has been reported in this study. Methods Retrospective analysis of laboratory data was conducted (1990-2006). NTS were isolated and identified from clinical ...

Overexpression of the Per2 Gene in Male Patients with Acute Q Fever

provides new perspectives to investigate the pathophysiology of Q fever. Acknowledgments. Vikram Mehraj is supported by the Higher Education Commission (Pakistan) and the Assistance PubliqueHpitaux de

Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection Is Specifically Associated With an Interferon-Related Transcriptional Program

Background. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a new causative agent of chronic hepatitis in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical studies suggest that the occurrence and persistence of chronic HEV infection are related to the immunological status of patients. Methods. We used whole-genome microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to ...

Monocyte Responses in the Context of Q Fever: From a Static Polarized Model to a Kinetic Model of Activation

Background. Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that persists in M2-polarized macrophages. We wondered whether the concept of M1/M2 polarization is applicable to Q fever patients. Methods. Monocytes from healthy controls were cultured with IFN-γ and IL-4, agonists of M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively, and their gene expression was assessed using whole-genome ...

Early Initiation Rather Than Prolonged Duration of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Infection Contributes to the Normalization of CD8 T-Cell Counts

Background. CD8 T-cell counts remain elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection even after long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is associated with an increased risk of non–AIDS-related events. We assessed the impact of ART initiation in early versus chronic HIV infection on trajectories of CD8 cell counts over time. Methods. Of 280 individuals enrolled during ...

HIV induces production of IL-18 from intestinal epithelial cells that increases intestinal permeability and microbial translocation

Jenabian. Formal analysis: Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad. Funding acquisition: Ali Ahmad. Investigation: Ossama Allam. Methodology: Vikram Mehraj, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian. Project ... administration: Ali Ahmad. Resources: Vikram Mehraj, Cecile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy. Software: Devendra Amre. Supervision: Ali Ahmad. Writing ± original draft: Ossama Allam. Writing ± review & editing