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Antimicrobial resistance: a global view from the 2013 World Healthcare-Associated Infections Forum

Angela Huttner 0 Stephan Harbarth 0 Jean Carlet Sara Cosgrove Herman Goossens Alison Holmes Vincent Jarlier Andreas Voss Didier Pittet 0 for the World Healthcare-Associated Infections Forum ... Harbarth (Switzerland), Loreen Herwaldt (USA), Nordiah Hj Awang Jalil (Malaysia), Alison Holmes (UK), Po-Ren Hsueh (Taiwan), Bi Jie Hu (China), Susan Huang (USA), Vincent Jarlier (France), William Jarvis

Quantitative evaluation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains in the wastewater of a French teaching hospital and relation to patient strain

Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli has become ubiquitous and has been reported in diverse ecosystems. We evaluated the potential impact of post-acute and long-term healthcare activities on the environment by quantifying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wastewaters of a French geriatric hospital. Methods We collected wastewater specimens...

Antimicrobial resistance: one world, one fight!

Harbarth (Switzerland), Loreen Herwaldt (USA), Alison Holmes (UK), Susan Huang (USA), Benedikt Huttner (Switzerland), Nordiah Jalil (Malaysia), Vincent Jarlier (France), John Jernigan (USA) ; James R

First multicenter study on multidrug resistant bacteria carriage in Chinese ICUs

Background The importance of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in Chinese hospitals is not clearly delineated. Thus we sought to assess the prevalence of MDRO in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective study of inpatients admitted consecutively to eight ICUs in four Chinese cities in 2009–10. Admission and weekly screenings were performed by using selective...

Rifampicin mono-resistant tuberculosis in France: a 2005–2010 retrospective cohort analysis

Background Rifampicin resistance is a risk factor for poor outcome in tuberculosis. Therefore, we sought to describe the characteristics and management of Rifampicin monoresistant (RMR) tuberculosis (TB) in France. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis in 2012 on RMR TB patients diagnosed in France between 2005 and 2010 by using a national laboratory network. A...

Resistance of M. leprae to Quinolones: A Question of Relativity?

Multidrug resistant leprosy, defined as resistance to rifampin, dapsone and fluoroquinolones (FQ), has been described in Mycobacterium leprae. However, the in vivo impact of fluoroquinolone resistance, mainly mediated by mutations in DNA gyrase (GyrA2GyrB2), has not been precisely assessed. Our objective was to measure the impact of a DNA gyrase mutation whose implication in...

Twenty years of antimicrobial resistance control programme in a regional multi hospital institution, with focus on emerging bacteria (VRE and CPE)

Background Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), the largest public health care institution in France (38 hospitals, 23,000 beds, serving 11.6 millions inhabitants) launched in 1993 a long term programme to control and survey multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Findings AP-HP MDR programme consisted in successive waves of actions: bundle measures to survey and control...

In Vivo Evaluation of Antibiotic Activity Against Mycobacterium abscessus

Background. The prognosis of Mycobacterium abscessus infections is poor due to the lack of effective drug treatment. The objective of this study was to set up an animal model suitable to test antibiotic activity against M. abscessus. Methods. The following mouse strains were evaluated: Swiss, BALB/c, C57BL/6, nude, beige, A/J, and GKO. Antibiotic activity was tested for...

First Evaluation of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Congo Revealed Misdetection of Fluoroquinolone Resistance by Line Probe Assay Due to a Double Substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems in Congo. However, data concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are lacking because of the insufficient processing capacity. So, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the resistance patterns and the strain lineages of a sample of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates...

Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Leprosy Using GenoType LepraeDR, a Novel Ready-To-Use Molecular Test

Background Although leprosy is efficiently treated by multidrug therapy, resistance to first-line (dapsone, rifampin) and to second-line drugs (fluoroquinolones) was described worldwide. Since Mycobacterium leprae is not growing in vitro, phenotypic susceptibility testing requires a one year experiment in the mouse model and this is rarely performed. Genetics on antibiotic...

Different Factors Associated with CTX-M-Producing ST131 and Non-ST131 Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates

Objectives To determine factors associated with CTX-M-producing ST131 Escherichia coli which is the worldwide predominant lineage among CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates. Methods Consecutive inpatients with a clinical sample positive for CTX-M-producing E. coli and considered as cases in a previous 8-month (2008–2009) case-control study performed in ten university hospitals in the...

Sterilizing Activity of Second-Line Regimens Containing TMC207 in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

Rationale The sterilizing activity of the regimen used to treat multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) has not been studied in a mouse model. Objective and Methods Swiss mice were intravenously inoculated with 6 log10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) strain H37Rv, treated with second-line drug combinations with or without the diarylquinoline TMC207, and then followed without...

Structural Insights into the Quinolone Resistance Mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA Gyrase

Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase, an indispensable nanomachine involved in the regulation of DNA topology, is the only type II topoisomerase present in this organism and is hence the sole target for quinolone action, a crucial drug active against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. To understand at an atomic level the quinolone resistance mechanism, which emerges in...

Patient's Origin and Lifestyle Associated with CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Case-Control-Control Study

Background Global dissemination of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) is a public health concern. The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with CTX-M- producing E. coli infections among patients hospitalised in the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, the largest hospital system in France (23 000 beds), through a prospective...

Dihydropteroate Synthase Mutations in the folP1 Gene Predict Dapsone Resistance in Relapsed Cases of Leprosy

Molecular detection was compared with the mouse footpad inoculation test for detection of dapsone resistance in 38 strains of Mycobacterium leprae. Mutations of the folP1 gene (at codons 53 or 55) were found in 6 of 6 strains with high-level resistance, in 3 of 4 strains with intermediate-level resistance, and in 1 of 6 strains with low-level resistance, but not in 22 dapsone...

Molecular Detection of Rifampin and Ofloxacin Resistance for Patients Who Experience Relapse of Multibacillary Leprosy

, Evelyne Perani, Wladimir Sougakoff, Baohong Ji, and Vincent Jarlier Centre National de Re ́fe ́rence pour la Surveillance des Infections a` Mycobacte ́ries et de leur Re ́sistance aux Antituberculeux