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Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Novel Methods for Characterization, Understanding Differentiation, and Function

Received 18 March 2014; Accepted 18 March 2014; Published 9 April 2014 Copyright © 2014 Vivek Tanavde et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ... MSC that is critical to the successful use of these cells in patient specific translational therapies. Vivek Tanavde Mohan C. Vemuri Radhika Pochampally

Deep sequencing of small RNA facilitates tissue and sex associated microRNA discovery in zebrafish

Background The role of microRNAs in gene regulation has been well established. The extent of miRNA regulation also increases with increasing genome complexity. Though the number of genes appear to be equal between human and zebrafish, substantially less microRNAs have been discovered in zebrafish compared to human (miRBase Release 19). It appears that most of the miRNAs in...

Embryonic Stem Cells Exhibit mRNA Isoform Specific Translational Regulation

The presence of multiple variants for many mRNAs is a major contributor to protein diversity. The processing of these variants is tightly controlled in a cell-type specific manner and has a significant impact on gene expression control. Here we investigate the differential translation rates of individual mRNA variants in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in ESC derived Neural...

CD44 Is a Negative Cell Surface Marker for Pluripotent Stem Cell Identification during Human Fibroblast Reprogramming

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising tools for disease research and cell therapy. One of the critical steps in establishing iPSC lines is the early identification of fully reprogrammed colonies among unreprogrammed fibroblasts and partially reprogrammed intermediates. Currently, colony morphology and pluripotent stem cell surface markers are used to identify iPSC...

Sensitivity of Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation from Stem Cells to Chronic Low-Dose Methylmercury Exposure

Perinatal exposure to low doses of methylmercury (MeHg) can cause adult neurological symptoms. Rather than leading to a net cell loss, the toxicant is assumed to alter the differentiation and neuronal functions such as catecholaminergic transmission. We used neuronally differentiating murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) to explore such subtle toxicity. The mixed neuronal cultures...

A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles

Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood–brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6+ precursor...

Analysis of deep sequencing microRNA expression profile from human embryonic stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells reveals possible role of let-7 microRNA family in downstream targeting of Hepatic Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha

Background Recent literature has revealed that genetic exchange of microRNA between cells can be essential for cell-cell communication, tissue-specificity and developmental processes. In stem cells, as in other cells, this can be accomplished through microvesicles or exosome mediated transfer. However, molecular profiles and functions of microRNAs within the cells and in their...