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Arrestins: structural disorder creates rich functionality

-arrestin2 or hTHY-ARRX), and arrestin-4 (cone or X-arrestin). COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICS GUIDELINES Vsevolod V. Gurevich, Eugenia V. Gurevich, and Vladimir N. Uversky declare that they have no conflict of

Intrinsic Disorder in Transmembrane Proteins: Roles in Signaling and Topology Prediction

Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are peculiar stretches of amino acids that lack stable conformations in solution. Intrinsic Disorder containing Proteins (IDP) are defined by the presence of at least one large IDR and have been linked to multiple cellular processes including cell signaling, DNA binding and cancer. Here we used computational analyses and publicly available...

Prothymosin-α Variants Elicit Anti-HIV-1 Response via TLR4 Dependent and Independent Pathways

Background Prothymosin α (ProTα) (isoform 2: iso2) is a widely distributed, small acidic protein with intracellular and extracellular-associated functions. Recently, we identified two new ProTα variants with potent anti-HIV activity from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal lavage. The first is a splice variant of the ProTα gene known as isoB and the second is the product of ProT...

Two Isoforms of Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Pla: Intraspecies Distribution, Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, and Contribution to Virulence

It has been shown previously that several endemic Y. pestis isolates with limited virulence contained the I259 isoform of the outer membrane protease Pla, while the epidemic highly virulent strains possessed only the T259 Pla isoform. Our sequence analysis of the pla gene from 118 Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains revealed that the I259 isoform was present exclusively in the...

Yersinia pestis Caf1 Protein: Effect of Sequence Polymorphism on Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, Serological Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protectivity of Isoforms

Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to...

Identifying Novel Cell Cycle Proteins in Apicomplexa Parasites through Co-Expression Decision Analysis

Hypothetical proteins comprise roughly half of the predicted gene complement of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum and represent the largest class of uniquely functioning proteins in these parasites. Following the idea that functional relationships can be informed by the timing of gene expression, we devised a strategy to identify the core set of apicomplexan cell...

DisProt 7.0: a major update of the database of disordered proteins

. Tsirigos Nevena Veljkovi c´ Salvador Ventura Wim Vranken Per Warholm Vladimir N. Uversky A. Keith Dunker Sonia Longhi Peter Tompa Silvio C.E. Tosatto - The Database of Protein Disorder (DisProt, URL

DisProt 7.0: a major update of the database of disordered proteins

. Tsirigos Nevena Veljkovi c´ Salvador Ventura Wim Vranken Per Warholm Vladimir N. Uversky A. Keith Dunker Sonia Longhi Peter Tompa Silvio C.E. Tosatto

Ordered Disorder of the Astrocytic Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex in the Norm and Pathology

The abundance and potential functional roles of intrinsically disordered regions in aquaporin-4, Kir4.1, a dystrophin isoforms Dp71, α-1 syntrophin, and α-dystrobrevin; i.e., proteins constituting the functional core of the astrocytic dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), are analyzed by a wealth of computational tools. The correlation between protein intrinsic disorder...

Improving protein order-disorder classification using charge-hydropathy plots

Background The earliest whole protein order/disorder predictor (Uversky et al., Proteins, 41: 415-427 (2000)), herein called the charge-hydropathy (C-H) plot, was originally developed using the Kyte-Doolittle (1982) hydropathy scale (Kyte & Doolittle., J. Mol. Biol, 157: 105-132(1982)). Here the goal is to determine whether the performance of the C-H plot in separating structured...

Rapid Evolutionary Dynamics of Structural Disorder as a Potential Driving Force for Biological Divergence in Flaviviruses

Protein structure is commonly regarded to be conserved and to dictate function. Most proteins rely on conformational flexibility to some degree. Are regions that convey conformational flexibility conserved over evolutionary time? Can changes in conformational flexibility alter protein function? Here, the evolutionary dynamics of structurally ordered and disordered (flexible...

Influence of Sequence Changes and Environment on Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

Many large-scale studies on intrinsically disordered proteins are implicitly based on the structural models deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Yet, the static nature of deposited models supplies little insight into variation of protein structure and function under diverse cellular and environmental conditions. While the computational predictability of disordered regions provides...

Actinidia DRM1 - An Intrinsically Disordered Protein Whose mRNA Expression Is Inversely Correlated with Spring Budbreak in Kiwifruit

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. Functional classification of IDPs have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation...

Free Cysteine Modulates the Conformation of Human C/EBP Homologous Protein

The C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) is a nuclear protein that is integral to the unfolded protein response culminating from endoplasmic reticulum stress. Previously, CHOP was shown to comprise extensive disordered regions and to self-associate in solution. In the current study, the intrinsically disordered nature of this protein was characterized further by comprehensive in...

Analyzing Thioflavin T Binding to Amyloid Fibrils by an Equilibrium Microdialysis-Based Technique

A new approach for the determination of the amyloid fibril – thioflavin T (ThT) binding parameters (the number of binding modes, stoichiometry, and binding constants of each mode) is proposed. This approach is based on the absorption spectroscopy determination of the concentration of free and bound to fibril dye in solutions, which are prepared by equilibrium microdialysis...

Analyzing and Mapping Sweat Metabolomics by High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy

The content of human sweat is studied by high-resolution NMR, and the majority of organic components most often found in sweat of conditionally healthy people are identified. Original and simple tools are designed for sweat sampling from different areas of human body. The minimal surface area needed for sampling is in the range of 50–100 cm2. On all the surface parts of the human...

Disease-Associated Mutations Disrupt Functionally Important Regions of Intrinsic Protein Disorder

The effects of disease mutations on protein structure and function have been extensively investigated, and many predictors of the functional impact of single amino acid substitutions are publicly available. The majority of these predictors are based on protein structure and evolutionary conservation, following the assumption that disease mutations predominantly affect folded and...

Interplay between estrogen receptor and AKT in Estradiol-induced alternative splicing

Background Alternative splicing is critical for generating complex proteomes in response to extracellular signals. Nuclear receptors including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and their ligands promote alternative splicing. The endogenous targets of ERα:estradiol (E2)-mediated alternative splicing and the influence of extracellular kinases that phosphorylate ERα on E2-induced...

In-silico prediction of disorder content using hybrid sequence representation

Marcin J Mizianty 0 Tuo Zhang Bin Xue Yaoqi Zhou A Keith Dunker Vladimir N Uversky Lukasz Kurgan 0 0 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta , Edmonton, Alberta T6G

Protein intrinsic disorder and influenza virulence: the 1918 H1N1 and H5N1 viruses

Background The 1918 H1N1 virus was a highly virulent strain that killed 20–50 million people. The cause of its virulence remains poorly understood. Methods Intrinsic disorder predictor PONDR® VLXT was used to compare various influenza subtypes and strains. Three-dimensional models using data from X-ray crystallographic studies annotated with disorder prediction were used to...