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SFRP5 inhibits gastric epithelial cell migration induced by macrophage-derived Wnt5a

Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is frequently found downregulated in gastric cancer due to SFRP5 gene hypermethylation, and there is a great necessity to elucidate the role of its downregulation in gastric cancer. By binding Wnt molecules, SFRP5 is generally supposed to exert negative effects on Wnt signal pathways widely linked to human cancers. This study found that ...

Dynamic activation of the key pathways: linking colitis to colorectal cancer in a mouse model

An association between carcinogenesis and inflammation has long been appreciated. Chemically induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is a classical mouse model for investigating ‘inflammation–cancer link’ in the intestine. Diverse mechanisms behind this non-resolving inflammation model have been reported before, most of them were emphasized on key cancer genes, cytokines, and ...

Genetic ancestry modifies the association between genetic risk variants and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women

Hispanic women in the USA have lower breast cancer incidence than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Genetic factors may contribute to this difference. Breast cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in women of European or Asian descent have identified multiple risk variants. We tested the association between 10 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms ...

Case–control analysis of nucleotide excision repair pathway and the risk of renal cell carcinoma

In this population-based case–control study with 325 Caucasian renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients and 335 controls matched to cases by age, gender and county of residence, we evaluated the associations between 13 potential functional polymorphisms in nine major nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes and RCC risk. In individual single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, after ...

Gene expression profiling of preneoplastic liver disease and liver cancer: a new era for improved early detection and treatment of these deadly diseases?

Jin Woo Kim 0 Xin Wei Wang 0 0 Building 37, Room 2C25, Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH , Bethesda, MD 20892- 4255 , USA 1To whom

Sensitivity to NNKOAc is associated with renal cancer risk

Cigarette smoking has been investigated as a major risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is one of the most abundant carcinogenic N-nitrosamines present in cigarette smoke. However, the association between repair capacity of NNK-induced DNA damage and RCC risk remains unknown. We used the comet assay to assess whether ...

Genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1, HOGG1 and MGMT and micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers

In this study, a group of 313 workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and 141 normal unexposed referents were examined for chromosomal damage using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes. We explored the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln), MGMT(Leu84Phe) and hOGG1 ...

NOR1 is an HSF1- and NRF1-regulated putative tumor suppressor inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Promoter hypermethylation-mediated silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is a hallmark of oncogenesis. Oxidored-nitro domain-containing protein 1 (NOR1) is a candidate TSG that is downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In the present study, we identified a functional NOR1 promoter that is regulated by heat shock factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 1. The promoter ...

Prevalence and persistence of chromosomal damage and susceptible genotypes of metabolic and DNA repair genes in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers

Vinyl chloride (VC) was classified as a group 1 carcinogen by IARC in 1987. Although the relationship between VC exposure and liver cancer has been established, the mechanism of VC-related carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Previous epidemiological studies have shown that VC exposure is associated with increased genotoxicity in humans. To explore chromosomal damage and its ...

Modulation by celecoxib and difluoromethylornithine of the methylation of DNA and the estrogen receptor-α gene in rat colon tumors

The ability of celecoxib and α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) to modulate the DNA hypomethylation and the hypermethylation of the estrogen receptor (ER)-α gene in colon tumors was evaluated as potential biomarkers for chemoprevention. Colon tumors were induced in rats by azoxymethane. Celecoxib (500 mg/kg), DFMO (100, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg) or celecoxib + 1000 mg/kg DFMO were ...

Altered expression of c-myc, p16 and p27 in rat colon tumors and its reversal by short-term treatment with chemopreventive agents

Modulation of gene expression in tumors has the potential of being a surrogate end-point biomarker for chemoprevention. Thus, we determined the modulation by chemopreventive agents of the protein and mRNA expression of genes in rat colon tumors. Male F344 rats were administered three weekly injections of 15 mg/kg azoxymethane. Forty-seven weeks later, they received aspirin (600), ...

Studies of methionine cycle intermediates (SAM, SAH), DNA methylation and the impact of folate deficiency on tumor numbers in Min mice

Several epidemiological studies have suggested a modulatory effect of dietary folate intake on the risk of colorectal cancer. The molecular basis for this inverse association is not clearly understood, but may involve alterations in DNA methylation. In this study, we examined the levels of methylation intermediates [S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)] and ...