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4.4 Å Resolution Cryo-EM structure of human mTOR Complex 1

, Mengjie Liu, Xizi Chen, Min Huang, Dan Tan, Meng-Qiu Dong, Catherine C. L. Wong, Jiawei Wang, Yanhui Xu and Hong-Wei Wang declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any

5-Fluorouracil Nanoparticles Inhibit Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Activation of the p53 Pathway in the Orthotopic Transplant Mouse Model

Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug delivery systems provide targeted drug delivery, improved pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, enhanced drug stability and fewer side effects. These drug delivery systems are widely used for delivering cytotoxic agents. In the present study, we synthesized GC/5-FU nanoparticles by combining galactosylated chitosan (GC) material with 5-FU, and ...

A Bipartite Molecular Module Controls Cell Death Activation in the Basal Cell Lineage of Plant Embryos

During plant embryogenesis, once the suspensor organ of the plant embryo has fulfilled its role, it is removed by programmed cell death (PCD). The pro-death cathepsin protease NtCP14 initiates this PCD, but is inhibited by the cystatin NtCYS until the suspensor function is fulfilled.

A Common Polymorphism near the ESR1 Gene Is Associated with Risk of Breast Cancer: Evidence from a Case-Control Study and a Meta-Analysis

Background Genome-wide association studies have reported that a polymorphism near the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) (rs2046210) is associated with a risk of breast cancer, with the A allele conferring an increased risk. However, considering the controversial results from more recent replicated studies, we conducted a case-control study in an independent Chinese Han population and a ...

A Family of Indoles Regulate Virulence and Shiga Toxin Production in Pathogenic E. coli

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) are intestinal pathogens that cause food and water-borne disease in humans. Using biochemical methods and NMR-based comparative metabolomics in conjunction with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we developed a bioassay to identify secreted small molecules produced by ...

A Functional Variant rs1820453 in YAP1 and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Population

BackgroundTo investigate the association between rs1820453 which located in the promoter region of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) gene and breast cancer (BC) risk. Method and FindingsWe conducted a hospital-based case-control study including a total of 480 BC cases and 545 cancer-free controls in Chinese population. Then the expression quantitative trait locus (e-QTL) analysis was ...

A Gene's Ability to Buffer Variation Is Predicted by Its Fitness Contribution and Genetic Interactions

Background Many single-gene knockouts result in increased phenotypic (e.g., morphological) variability among the mutant's offspring. This has been interpreted as an intrinsic ability of genes to buffer genetic and environmental variation. A phenotypic capacitor is a gene that appears to mask phenotypic variation: when knocked out, the offspring shows more variability than the wild ...

A Genetic Variant in pre-miR-27a Is Associated with a Reduced Renal Cell Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs to regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, development, and apoptosis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs895819 is located at the terminal loop of pre-miR-27a. Here, we aimed to investigate whether SNP rs895819 was associated with the development of renal cell cancer (RCC) in a Chinese population. ...

A Genetic Variant rs1801274 in FCGR2A as a Potential Risk Marker for Kawasaki Disease: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

Objectives Recent genome-wide association study found rs1801274, a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IgG receptor gene FCGR2A, was associated with increased risk of Kawasaki disease (KD). However, subsequent studies on the role of this SNP were limited and controversial. Methods A case-control study was conducted in a Chinese Han population including 428 KD ...

A High Speed Detection Platform Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering for Monitoring Antibiotic-Induced Chemical Changes in Bacteria Cell Wall

Rapid and accurate diagnosis for pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility is critical for controlling bacterial infections. Conventional methods for determining bacterium's sensitivity to antibiotic depend mostly on measuring the change of microbial proliferation in response to the drug. Such “biological assay” inevitably takes time, ranging from days for fast-growing bacteria ...

A Method for the Evaluation of Image Quality According to the Recognition Effectiveness of Objects in the Optical Remote Sensing Image Using Machine Learning Algorithm

Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA) is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI). In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR) is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in ...

A MicroRNA-7 Binding Site Polymorphism in HOXB5 Leads to Differential Gene Expression in Bladder Cancer

Purpose To investigate the biological function of HOXB5 in human bladder cancer and explore whether the HOXB5 3′-UTR SNP (1010A/G), which is located within the microRNA-7 binding site, was correlated with clinical features of bladder cancer. Methods Expression of HOXB5 in 35 human bladder cancer tissues and 8 cell lines were examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. ...

A Multiscale Investigation of Bicoid-Dependent Transcriptional Events in Drosophila Embryos

Background Morphogen molecules form concentration gradients to provide spatial information to cells in a developing embryo. Precisely how cells decode such information to form patterns with sharp boundaries remains an open question. For example, it remains controversial whether the Drosophila morphogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd) plays a transient or sustained role in activating its ...

A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis

Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. ...

A New Strategy Using ALDHhigh-CD8+T Cells to Inhibit Tumorigenesis

Background Currently, many studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, tumorigenesis, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have been identified from various human and murine tumors. The identification of CSCs allows us to develop strategies to target the CSCs. Methods and Results In this study, we used ALDEFLUOR as a single marker to isolate the ...

A Novel GJA8 Mutation (p.V44A) Causing Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataract

Purpose To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50) mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts. Methods Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin ...

A Peptide Binding to the β-Site of APP Improves Spatial Memory and Attenuates Aβ Burden in Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mice

Amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), an aspartyl protease, initiates processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid (Aβ); the peptide likely contributes to development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). BACE1 is an attractive therapeutic target for AD treatment, but it exhibits other physiological activities and has many other substrates besides APP. ...

A Potential Risk of Overestimating Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Parotid Glands

Objectives To investigate transient signal loss on diffusion weighted images (DWI) and overestimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in parotid glands using single shot echoplanar DWI (EPDWI). Materials and Methods This study enrolled 6 healthy subjects and 7 patients receiving radiotherapy. All participants received dynamic EPDWI with a total of 8 repetitions. Imaging ...

A Prospective Cohort Study of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy: The First 147 Pregnancies and 100 One Year Old Babies

Background Many women diagnosed with varying psychiatric disorders take antipsychotic medications during pregnancy. The safety of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy is largely unknown. Methods We established the National Register of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy in 2005. Women who are pregnant and taking an antipsychotic medication are interviewed every 6 weeks during ...