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Cryptococcosis in HIV-negative Patients with Renal Dialysis: A Retrospective Analysis of Pooled Cases

Cryptococcosis is a lethal fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species. Currently, our understanding of cryptococcosis episodes in HIV-negative patients during renal dialysis remains scarce and fragmented. Here, we performed an analysis of pooled cases to systemically summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis among...

WinHAP2: an extremely fast haplotype phasing program for long genotype sequences

Background The haplotype phasing problem tries to screen for phenotype associated genomic variations from millions of candidate data. Most of the current computer programs handle this problem with high requirements of computing power and memory. By replacing the computation-intensive step of constructing the maximum spanning tree with a heuristics of estimated initial haplotype...

Parallel-META 2.0: Enhanced Metagenomic Data Analysis with Functional Annotation, High Performance Computing and Advanced Visualization

The metagenomic method directly sequences and analyses genome information from microbial communities. The main computational tasks for metagenomic analyses include taxonomical and functional structure analysis for all genomes in a microbial community (also referred to as a metagenomic sample). With the advancement of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques, the number of...

Cryptococcus inositol utilization modulates the host protective immune response during brain infection

Background Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis among individuals with HIV/AIDS, which is uniformly fatal without proper treatment. The underlying mechanism of disease development in the brain that leads to cryptococcal meningoencephalitis remains incompletely understood. We have previously demonstrated that inositol transporters (ITR) are...

Pulmonary fungus ball caused by Penicillium capsulatum in a patient with type 2 diabetes: a case report

Background Following the recent transfer of all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces (including Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei), Penicillium species are becoming increasingly rare causal agents of invasive infections. Herein, we present a report of a type 2 diabetes patient with a fungus ball in the respiratory tract caused...

Common Genetic Variations in Patched1 (PTCH1) Gene and Risk of Hirschsprung Disease in the Han Chinese Population

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is the most frequent genetic cause of congenital intestinal obstruction with an incidence of 1:5000 live births. In a pathway-based epistasis analysis of data generated by genome-wide association study on HSCR, specific genotype of Patched 1 (PTCH1) has been linked to an increased risk for HSCR. The aim of the present study is to examine the...

Down-Regulation of HtrA1 Activates the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and ATM DNA Damage Response Pathways

Expression of the serine protease HtrA1 is decreased or abrogated in a variety of human primary cancers, and higher levels of HtrA1 expression are directly related to better response to chemotherapeutics. However, the precise mechanisms leading to HtrA1 down regulation during malignant transformation are unclear. To investigate HtrA1 gene regulation in breast cancer, we...

Geographically Structured Populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia Correlate with HIV Status and Show a Clonal Population Structure

Ferry Hagen Weihua Pan Sitali Simwami Matthew C. Fisher Retno Wahyuningsih Arunaloke Chakrabarti Anuradha Chowdhary Reiko Ikeda Saad J. Taj-Aldeen Ziauddin Khan Margaret Ip Darma Imran Ridhawati Sjam

Resistance of Asian Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Is Confined to Few Microsatellite Genotypes

Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent...