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Quantifying the Impoverishing Effects of Purchasing Medicines: A Cross-Country Comparison of the Affordability of Medicines in the Developing World

Laurens Niëns and colleagues estimate the impoverishing effects of four medicines in 16 low- and middle-income countries using the impoverishment method as a metric of affordability and show that medicine purchases could impoverish large numbers of people.

Lifetime Medical Costs of Obesity: Prevention No Cure for Increasing Health Expenditure

Background Obesity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with high medical expenditures. It has been suggested that obesity prevention could result in cost savings. The objective of this study was to estimate the annual and lifetime medical costs attributable to obesity, to compare those to similar costs attributable to smoking, and to discuss the...

Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: Validation of the German Version of the ICECAP-O

Objectives To validate the ICECAP-O capability wellbeing measure’s German translation in older people with dementia living in a nursing home, and to investigate the influence of proxy characteristics on responses. Method Cross-sectional study. For 95 residents living in a German nursing home, questionnaires were completed by nursing professionals serving as proxy respondents. We...

Valuing QALYs in Relation to Equity Considerations Using a Discrete Choice Experiment

Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam , 3000 DR Rotterdam , The Netherlands 1 Werner B. F. Brouwer Background To judge whether an intervention offers value for money, the incremental costs

Measuring Care-Related Quality of Life of Caregivers for Use in Economic Evaluations: CarerQol Tariffs for Australia, Germany, Sweden, UK, and US

Background Informal care is often not included in economic evaluations in healthcare, while the impact of caregiving can be relevant for cost-effectiveness recommendations from a societal perspective. The impact of informal care can be measured and valued with the CarerQol instrument, which measures the impact of informal care on seven important burden dimensions (CarerQol-7D...

Discounting in Economic Evaluations

Appropriate discounting rules in economic evaluations have received considerable attention in the literature and in national guidelines for economic evaluations. Rightfully so, as discounting can be quite influential on the outcomes of economic evaluations. The most prominent controversies regarding discounting involve the basis for and height of the discount rate, whether costs...

Capabilities and quality of life in Dutch psycho-geriatric nursing homes: an exploratory study using a proxy version of the ICECAP-O

Purpose To validate the ICECAP-O capability measure in psycho-geriatric elderly in nursing homes, we compared the capability scores of restrained and unrestrained clients. Both nursing staff and family were used as proxies for assessing clients’ capabilities. Method For 122 psycho-geriatric elderly, a total of 96 nursing professionals and 68 family members completed a proxy...

Assessing health-related quality-of-life changes in informal caregivers: an evaluation in parents of children with major congenital anomalies

Purpose Relatively few attempts to measure the effects on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of informal caregivers within the context of economic evaluations have been reported. This paper is an exploratory attempt to find suitable methods to assess caregivers’ HRQoL, using a population of parents of children with major congenital anomalies. Methods A total of 306...

Constantly Proving The Opposite? A test of CPTO using a broad time horizon and correcting for discounting

Arthur E. Attema 0 Werner B. F. Brouwer 0 0 A. E. Attema (&) W. B. F. Brouwer iBMG/iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam , PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands Purpose An important

A new test of the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument: measuring the impact of informal care giving

Purpose Most economic evaluations of health care programmes do not consider the effects of informal care, while this could lead to suboptimal policy decisions. This study investigates the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument, which measures and values carer effects, in a new population of informal caregivers. Methods A questionnaire was distributed by mail (n = 1,100...

On the (not so) constant proportional trade-off in TTO

Arthur E. Attema 0 Werner B. F. Brouwer 0 0 A. E. Attema (&) W. B. F. Brouwer iBMG/iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam , P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands Purpose The linear and

A long life in good health: subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life

Background Subjective life expectancy is considered relevant in predicting mortality and future demand for health services as well as for explaining peoples’ decisions in several life domains, such as the perceived impact of health behaviour changes on future health outcomes. Such expectations and in particular subjective expectations regarding future health-related quality of...

New findings from the time trade-off for income approach to elicit willingness to pay for a quality adjusted life year

In this paper we empirically investigate how to appropriately model utility of wealth and health. We use a recently proposed alternative approach to value willingness to pay (WTP) for health, making use of trade-offs between income and life years or quality of life, which we extend to allow for a more realistic multiplicative utility function over health and money. Moreover, we...

A short note on measuring subjective life expectancy: survival probabilities versus point estimates

Understanding subjective longevity expectations is important, but measurement is not straightforward. Two common elicitation formats are the direct measurement of a subjective point estimate of life expectancy and the assessment of survival probabilities to a range of target ages. This study presents one of the few direct comparisons of these two methods. Results from a...