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Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework

The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that have been optimized to ...

The “tweaking principle” for task switching

the Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-131-0297, The Swartz Foundation Fellowship (Salva Ardid), and John Simon Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (Xiao-Jing Wang).

Stomatin-like protein 2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and predicts poor patient survival

Background Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2, also known as STOML2) is a stomatin homologue of uncertain function. SLP-2 overexpression has been suggested to be associated with cancer progression, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes in patients. Our study aim to investigate SLP-2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and its correlation with patient survival. Methods SLP-2 ...

MicroRNA-203 represses selection and expansion of oncogenic Hras transformed tumor initiating cells

In many mouse models of skin cancer, only a few tumors typically form even though many cells competent for tumorigenesis receive the same oncogenic stimuli. These observations suggest an active selection process for tumor-initiating cells. Here, we use quantitative mRNA- and miR-Seq to determine the impact of Hras G12V on the transcriptome of keratinocytes. We discover that ...

A diversity of localized timescales in network activity

Neurons show diverse timescales, so that different parts of a network respond with disparate temporal dynamics. Such diversity is observed both when comparing timescales across brain areas and among cells within local populations; the underlying circuit mechanism remains unknown. We examine conditions under which spatially local connectivity can produce such diverse temporal ...

Effects of altered ephrin-A5 and EphA4/EphA7 expression on tumor growth in a medulloblastoma mouse model

Background Members of the Eph/ephrin gene families act as key regulators of cerebellar development during embryogenesis. Aberrant signaling of Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands has also been implicated in human cancers. Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primitive neuroectodermal tumor that originates from granule neuron precursors in the cerebellum. ...

Stretching of memory in strategic decision making

Alberto Bernacchia 0 Xiao-Jing Wang 0 0 Department of Neurobiology, Yale University , USA From Twenty First Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2012 Decatur, GA, USA. 21-26 July 2012 In

Linking Microcircuit Dysfunction to Cognitive Impairment: Effects of Disinhibition Associated with Schizophrenia in a Cortical Working Memory Model

Excitation–inhibition balance (E/I balance) is a fundamental property of cortical microcircuitry. Disruption of E/I balance in prefrontal cortex is hypothesized to underlie cognitive deficits observed in neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. To elucidate the link between these phenomena, we incorporated synaptic disinhibition, via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ...

The Combination of SMAD4 Expression and Histological Grade of Dysplasia Is a Better Predictor for the Malignant Transformation of Oral Leukoplakia

Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the most common premalignancy in the oral cavity and can progress to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). SMAD4 is a tumor suppressor implicated in multiple cancer types including OSCC. To assess the role of SMAD4 in oral leukoplakia malignant transformation, the authors investigated SMAD4 expression patterns in OL and OSCC using a highly specific antibody ...

Top-Down Modulation on Perceptual Decision with Balanced Inhibition through Feedforward and Feedback Inhibitory Neurons

Recent physiological studies have shown that neurons in various regions of the central nervous systems continuously receive noisy excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in a balanced and covaried fashion. While this balanced synaptic input (BSI) is typically described in terms of maintaining the stability of neural circuits, a number of experimental and theoretical studies have ...

Involvement of IL-9 in Th17-Associated Inflammation and Angiogenesis of Psoriasis

It is thought that a Th1/Th17-weighted immune response plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Our findings now indicate a link between IL-9, a Th2 and Th9 cytokine, and Th17 pathway in psoriasis. In K5.hTGF-β1 transgenic mice, exhibiting a psoriasis-like phenotype, we found increased IL-9R and IL-9 expression in the skin and intradermal IL-9 injection induced ...

A Common Cortical Circuit Mechanism for Perceptual Categorical Discrimination and Veridical Judgment

Perception involves two types of decisions about the sensory world: identification of stimulus features as analog quantities, or discrimination of the same stimulus features among a set of discrete alternatives. Veridical judgment and categorical discrimination have traditionally been conceptualized as two distinct computational problems. Here, we found that these two types of ...

Cannabinoid-Mediated Disinhibition and Working Memory: Dynamical Interplay of Multiple Feedback Mechanisms in a Continuous Attractor Model of Prefrontal Cortex

Recurrent excitation is believed to underlie persistent neural activity observed in the prefrontal cortex and elsewhere during working memory. However, other positive and negative feedback mechanisms, operating on disparate timescales, may also play significant roles in determining the behavior of a working memory circuit. In this study, we examined dynamical interactions of ...

Tuning Curve Shift by Attention Modulation in Cortical Neurons: a Computational Study of its Mechanisms

Physiological studies of visual attention have demonstrated that focusing attention near a visual cortical neuron's receptive field (RF) results in enhanced evoked activity and RF shift. In this work, we explored the mechanisms of attention induced RF shifts in cortical network models that receive an attentional ‘spotlight’. Our main results are threefold. First, whereas a ...

Identification of an important site for function of the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI2 in abscisic acid signalling in Arabidopsis

It is known that the clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs), including ABI1 and ABI2 and other PP2C members, are key players that function directly downstream of the PYR/PYL/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptors. Here, identification of a crucial site for function of ABI2 protein phosphatase in ABA signalling is reported. It was observed that a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) ...

Identification of a natural human serotype 3 parainfluenza virus

Parainfluenza virus is an important pathogen threatening the health of animals and human, which brings human many kinds of disease, especially lower respiratory tract infection involving infants and young children. In order to control the virus, it is necessary to fully understand the molecular basis resulting in the genetic diversity of the virus. Homologous recombination is one ...

The Dynamical Response Properties of Neocortical Neurons to Temporally Modulated Noisy Inputs In Vitro

Cortical neurons are often classified by current–frequency relationship. Such a static description is inadequate to interpret neuronal responses to time-varying stimuli. Theoretical studies suggested that single-cell dynamical response properties are necessary to interpret ensemble responses to fast input transients. Further, it was shown that input-noise linearizes and boosts the ...