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Polyaxial stress-dependent permeability of a three-dimensional fractured rock layer

A study about the influence of polyaxial (true-triaxial) stresses on the permeability of a three-dimensional (3D) fractured rock layer is presented. The 3D fracture system is constructed by extruding a two-dimensional (2D) outcrop pattern of a limestone bed that exhibits a ladder structure consisting of a “through-going” joint set abutted by later-stage short fractures...

Co-Activation of Th17 and Antibody Responses Provides Efficient Protection against Mucosal Infection by Group A Streptococcus

Conserved protein antigens among serotypes of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) have been focused for vaccine development because of the diversity of GAS serotypes and risks of autoimmunity post-GAS infection. Precise delineation of protective immune response to each of GAS antigens is critical for vaccine efficacy and safety. We recently reported that immunization with SrtA...

Innate endogenous adjuvants prime to desirable immune responses via mucosal routes

, tetanus toxin. COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICS GUIDELINES Xiaoguang Wang and Delong Meng declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects

Meta-MapReduce for scalable data mining

W e h a v e e n t e r e d t h e b i g data age. Knowledge extraction from massive data is becoming more and more urgent. MapReduce provides a feasible framework for programming machine learning algorithms in Map and Reduce functions. The relatively simple programming interface has helped to solve machine learning algorithms’ scalability problems. However, this framework suffers...

Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this...

Reliability of Pseudotyped Influenza Viral Particles in Neutralizing Antibody Detection

Background Current influenza control strategies require an active surveillance system. Pseudotyped viral particles (pp) together with the evaluation of pre-existing immunity in a population might satisfy this requirement. However, the reliability of using pp in neutralizing antibody (nAb) detection are undefined. Methodology/Principal Findings Pseudotyped particles of A(H1N1...

c-Abl Kinase Is a Regulator of αvβ3 Integrin Mediated Melanoma A375 Cell Migration

Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that physically link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the intracellular actin cytoskeleton, and are also signaling molecules that transduce signals bi-directionally across the plasma membrane. Integrin regulation is essential for tumor cell migration in response to growth factors. c-Abl kinase is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase...

Lipid Raft Is Required for PSGL-1 Ligation Induced HL-60 Cell Adhesion on ICAM-1

P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and integrins are adhesion molecules that play critical roles in host defense and innate immunity. PSGL-1 mediates leukocyte rolling and primes leukocytes for integrin-mediated adhesion. However, the mechanism that PSGL-1 as a rolling receptor in regulating integrin activation has not been well characterized. Here, we investigate the...

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Points and Lines with Unknown Correspondence across Images

Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003 , USA 1 Xiaoguang Wang Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003 , USA 2 Robert T. Collins Robotics Institute