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Genetic determinants of pig birth weight variability

Background Piglet birth weight variability, a trait also known as the within-litter homogeneity of birth weight, reflects the sow’s prolificacy, because it is positively genetically correlated with preweaning mortality but negatively correlated with the mean growth of piglets during sucking. In addition, the maternal additive genetic variance and heritability has been found exist ...

Iterative Usage of Fixed and Random Effect Models for Powerful and Efficient Genome-Wide Association Studies

False positives in a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) can be effectively controlled by a fixed effect and random effect Mixed Linear Model (MLM) that incorporates population structure and kinship among individuals to adjust association tests on markers; however, the adjustment also compromises true positives. The modified MLM method, Multiple Loci Linear Mixed Model (MLMM), ...

First insights into the microbial diversity in the omasum and reticulum of bovine using Illumina sequencing

The digestive systems of mammals harbor a complex gut microbiome, comprising bacteria and other microorganisms that confer metabolic and immunological benefits to the host. Ruminants that digest plant-based foods have a four-compartment stomach consisting of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. The microorganisms in the stomach are essential for providing the host with ...

Characterisation of a high-frequency gene encoding a strongly antigenic cystatin-like protein from Trichinella spiralis at its early invasion stage

Background The intestinal phase is the early invasion stage of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), in which muscle larvae invade intestine epithelial cells and then develop into adult worms to breed newborn larvae. Thus, intestinal infective larvae are first exposed to the immune system of the host, and antigens from the worms may be the earliest marker in the diagnosis of ...

Enrichment of statistical power for genome-wide association studies

Background The inheritance of most human diseases and agriculturally important traits is controlled by many genes with small effects. Identifying these genes, while simultaneously controlling false positives, is challenging. Among available statistical methods, the mixed linear model (MLM) has been the most flexible and powerful for controlling population structure and individual ...

Targeted Inactivation of GPR26 Leads to Hyperphagia and Adiposity by Activating AMPK in the Hypothalamus

G-protein coupled receptor 26 (GPR26) is a brain-specific orphan GPCR with high expression in the brain region that controls satiety. Depletion of GPR26 has been shown to increase fat storage in C. elegans, whereas GPR26 deficiency in the hypothalamus is associated with high genetic susceptibility to the onset of obesity in mice. However, the metabolic function of GPR26 in mammals ...

Proteomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscle in Insulin-Resistant Mice: Response to 6-Week Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on both weight control and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a number of specific signaling proteins. To investigate the targets by which exercise exerts its effects on insulin resistance, an approach of proteomic screen was applied to detect the potential different protein expressions from skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant mice ...

Escherichia coli and Candida albicans Induced Macrophage Extracellular Trap-Like Structures with Limited Microbicidal Activity

The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) has recently been recognized as a novel defense mechanism in several types of innate immune cells. It has been suggested that these structures are toxic to microbes and contribute significantly to killing several pathogens. However, the role of ETs formed by macrophages (METs) in defense against microbes remains little known. In this ...

Characterisation of a Plancitoxin-1-Like DNase II Gene in Trichinella spiralis

Background Deoxyribonuclease II (DNase II) is a well-known acidic endonuclease that catalyses the degradation of DNA into oligonucleotides. Only one or a few genes encoding DNase II have been observed in the genomes of many species. 125 DNase II-like protein family genes were predicted in the Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) genome; however, none have been confirmed. DNase II is ...

A comparative study of small RNAs in Toxoplasma gondii of distinct genotypes

BackgroundToxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with a significant impact on human health. Inside the mammalian and avian hosts, the parasite can undergo rapid development or remain inactive in the cysts. The mechanism that regulates parasite proliferation has not been fully understood. Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous regulatory ...

Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological and experimental data provide further ...

Global Gene Expression Analysis of the Zoonotic Parasite Trichinella spiralis Revealed Novel Genes in Host Parasite Interaction

Background Trichinellosis is a typical food-borne zoonotic disease which is epidemic worldwide and the nematode Trichinella spiralis is the main pathogen. The life cycle of T. spiralis contains three developmental stages, i.e. adult worms, new borne larva (new borne L1 larva) and muscular larva (infective L1 larva). Stage-specific gene expression in the parasites has been ...

Transcriptome of Small Regulatory RNAs in the Development of the Zoonotic Parasite Trichinella spiralis

Background Trichinella spiralis is a parasite with unique features. It is a multicellular organism but with an intracellular parasitization and development stage. T. spiralis is the helminthic pathogen that causes zoonotic trichinellosis and afflicts more than 10 million people worldwide, whereas the parasite's biology, especially the developmental regulation is largely unknown. In ...

Differential DNA methylation in discrete developmental stages of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis

Background DNA methylation plays an essential role in regulating gene expression under a variety of conditions and it has therefore been hypothesized to underlie the transitions between life cycle stages in parasitic nematodes. So far, however, 5'-cytosine methylation has not been detected during any developmental stage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Given the new ...