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The genera Areopraon Mackauer, 1959 and Pseudopraon Starý, 1975 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from China, with keys to species

Two genera, Areopraon Mackauer, 1959 and Pseudopraon Starý, 1975, are newly recorded from China in this paper. Two new species, namely A. chui Tian & Chen, sp. n. and P. hei Tian & Chen, sp. n., are described and illustrated. Keys to the known species of these two genera are provided.

Multiple Lines of Evidence from Mitochondrial Genomes Resolve Phylogenetic Relationships of Parasitic Wasps in Braconidae

The rapid increase in the number of mitochondrial genomes in public databases provides opportunities for insect phylogenetic studies; but it also provides challenges because of gene rearrangements and variable substitution rates among both lineages and sites. Typically, phylogenetic studies use mitochondrial sequence data but exclude other features of the mitochondrial genome...

Four Heat Shock Protein Genes of the Endoparasitoid Wasp, Cotesia vestalis, and Their Transcriptional Profiles in Relation to Developmental Stages and Temperature

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play important roles in the environmental adaptation of various organisms. To explore the functions of Hsps in relation to heat stress and development in Cotesia vestalis, a solitary larval endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella, four heat shock protein genes, CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90, were cloned and sequenced from C. vestalis by real-time...

Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning...

Antimicrobial Peptide Evolution in the Asiatic Honey Bee Apis cerana

The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two...

The complete mitochondrial genome of Evania appendigaster (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) has low A+T content and a long intergenic spacer between atp8 and atp6

The apocritan Hymenoptera show extraordinary features in mitochondrial genomes, but no complete sequence has been reported for the basal lineage, Evanioidea. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Evania appendigaster. This genome is 17,817 bp long; with low A+T content, 77.8%, compared with other hymenopteran species. Four tRNA genes were rearranged, among which...

Venom of Parasitoid, Pteromalus puparum, Suppresses Host, Pieris rapae, Immune Promotion by Decreasing Host C-Type Lectin Gene Expression

Background Insect hosts have evolved immunity against invasion by parasitoids, and in co-evolutionary response parasitoids have also developed strategies to overcome host immune systems. The mechanisms through which parasitoid venoms disrupt the promotion of host immunity are still unclear. We report here a new mechanism evolved by parasitoid Pteromalus puparum, whose venom...

Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

-jun Wei 0 Min Shi 0 Michael J Sharkey Cornelis van Achterberg Xue-xin Chen 0 0 State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310029 , China Background: Animal mitochondrial

New Views on Strand Asymmetry in Insect Mitochondrial Genomes

Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution...