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Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus

performed the experiment. All authors discussed the findings. Tsukasa Maruyama, Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, and Ryuta Kawashima conceived the experiments. Tsukasa Maruyama and Hikaru Takeuchi wrote the

Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Gray Matter Volume in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

The Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with psychiatric disorders and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in adults. However, the relationship between BDNF and rGMV in children has not been clarified. In this 3-year cross-sectional/longitudinal (2 time points) study, we investigated the effects of BDNF genotypes on rGMV in 185 healthy...

Postoperative hormonal therapy prevents recovery of neurological damage after surgery in patients with breast cancer

, Sendai, JapanHikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki & Ryuta KawashimaDepartment of Breast Oncology, Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital, Miyagi, JapanMasaaki Kawai AuthorsSearch for Atsushi Sekiguchi in:Nature Research ... Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Yasuyuki Taki in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Noriaki Ohuchi in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch

Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents

A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about...

On the Utility of MIBG SPECT/CT in Evaluating Cardiac Sympathetic Dysfunction in Lewy Body Diseases

Background Abnormal cardiac uptake of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) is a diagnostic marker of Lewy body diseases (LBDs), e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Planar imaging is generally used to assess cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in 123I-MIBG scintigraphy; however, its clinical utility requires further improvement. We hypothesized that...

Changes in Cognitive Functions in the Elderly Living in Temporary Housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake

On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 and subsequent enormous tsunamis. This disaster destroyed many coastal cities and caused nearly 20,000 casualties. In the aftermath of the disaster, many tsunami survivors who lost their homes were forced to live in small temporary apartments. Although all tsunami survivors were at risk of deteriorating health...

The Impact of Television Viewing on Brain Structures: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses

Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV...

Postoperative Structural Brain Changes and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Breast Cancer

Objective The primary purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the early response to surgery on brain structure and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer. It was hypothesized that the structure of the thalamus would change during the early response after surgery due to the effects of anesthesia and would represent one aspect of an intermediate phenotype...

Impact of transpulmonary thermodilution-based cardiac contractility and extravascular lung water measurements on clinical outcome of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study

Introduction Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a life-threatening systemic consequence early after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but precise hemodynamics and related outcomes have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate TCM-induced cardiac function by transpulmonary thermodilution and its impact on clinical outcome of SAH. Methods We retrospectively...

The anterior midcingulate cortex as a neural node underlying hostility in young adults

Anger typically manifests for only a short period of time, whereas hostility is present for a longer duration. However, both of these emotions are associated with an increased likelihood of psychological problems. The nodes within the neural networks that underlie hostility remain unclear. We presumed that specific nodes might include the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC...

Regional Gray Matter Volume Is Associated with Empathizing and Systemizing in Young Adults

Empathizing is defined as the drive to identify the mental states of others for predicting their behavior and responding with an appropriate emotion. Systemizing is defined as the drive to analyze a system in terms of the rules that govern the system in order to predict its behavior. Using voxel-based morphometry and questionnaires in a large sample of normal, right-handed young...

Amygdala and cingulate structure is associated with stereotype on sex-role

University, Sendai, JapanHikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Hiroshi Hashizume, Yuko Sassa & Ryuta KawashimaDivision of Medical Neuroimaging Analysis, Department of Community Medical Supports, Tohoku Medical ... University, Sendai, JapanKeiko Kunitoki AuthorsSearch for Hikaru Takeuchi in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Yasuyuki Taki in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google

The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People

Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV) and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in...

Brain structures associated with executive functions during everyday events in a non-clinical sample

Executive functions involve control processes such as goal-oriented planning, flexible strategy generation, sustaining set maintenance, self-monitoring, and inhibition. Executive functions during everyday events (EFEEs) are distinct from those measured under laboratory settings; the former can be severely impaired while the latter remain intact. Non-routine everyday problems due...

Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study

Background. Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly. Methods. Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups...

Working memory training impacts the mean diffusivity in the dopaminergic system

Dopaminergic transmission plays a critical role in working memory (WM). Mean diffusivity (MD) is a sensitive and unique neuroimaging tool for detecting microstructural differences particularly in the areas of the dopaminergic system. Despite previous investigation of the effects of WM training (WMT) on dopamine receptor binding potentials, the effects of WMT on MD remain unknown...

Assessment of myocardial metabolic disorder associated with mediastinal radiotherapy for esophageal cancer -a pilot study-

Background To evaluate the dose-effect relations for myocardial metabolic disorders after mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) by performing iodine-123 β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (I-123 BMIPP) scintigraphy. Methods Between 2011 and 2012, we performed I-123 BMIPP scintigraphy for patients with esophageal cancer before and six months after curative mediastinal RT. Single...

The Association between Resting Functional Connectivity and Creativity

The analysis of functional connectivity at rest (rFC) enables us to know how brain regions within and between networks interact. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a creativity test of divergent thinking (DT) to investigate the relationship between creativity measured by DT and rFC. We took the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to be the...

Regional Gray Matter Density Associated with Cognitive Reflectivity–Impulsivity: Evidence from Voxel-Based Morphometry

When faced with a problem or choice, humans can use two different strategies: “cognitive reflectivity,” which involves slow responses and fewer mistakes, or “cognitive impulsivity,” which comprises of quick responses and more mistakes. Different individuals use these two strategies differently. To our knowledge, no study has directly investigated the brain regions involved in...