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Physiological and Genomic Features of a Novel Sulfur-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Belonging to a Previously Uncultivated Symbiotic Lineage Isolated from a Hydrothermal Vent

Strain Hiromi 1, a sulfur-oxidizing gammaproteobacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney in the Okinawa Trough and represents a novel genus that may include a phylogenetic group found as endosymbionts of deep-sea gastropods. The SSU rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Hiromi 1 and the gastropod endosymbionts was approximately 97%. The strain was shown to grow ...

Metagenomic Analysis of Viral Communities in (Hado)Pelagic Sediments

In this study, we analyzed viral metagenomes (viromes) in the sedimentary habitats of three geographically and geologically distinct (hado)pelagic environments in the northwest Pacific; the Izu-Ogasawara Trench (water depth = 9,760 m) (OG), the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench (10,325 m) (MA), and the forearc basin off the Shimokita Peninsula (1,181 m) (SH). Virus abundance ...

Genomic Heterogeneity in a Natural Archaeal Population Suggests a Model of tRNA Gene Disruption

Understanding the mechanistic basis of the disruption of tRNA genes, as manifested in the intron-containing and split tRNAs found in Archaea, will provide considerable insight into the evolution of the tRNA molecule. However, the evolutionary processes underlying these disruptions have not yet been identified. Previously, a composite genome of the deep-branching archaeon ...

Loss of genes for DNA recombination and repair in the reductive genome evolution of thioautotrophic symbionts of Calyptogena clams

Background Two Calyptogena clam intracellular obligate symbionts, Ca. Vesicomyosocius okutanii (Vok; C. okutanii symbiont) and Ca. Ruthia magnifica (Rma; C. magnifica symbiont), have small genomes (1.02 and 1.16 Mb, respectively) with low G+C contents (31.6% and 34.0%, respectively) and are thought to be in an ongoing stage of reductive genome evolution (RGE). They lack recA and ...

Algivore or Phototroph? Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda) Continuously Acquires Kleptoplasts and Nutrition from Multiple Algal Species in Nature

The sea slug Plakobranchus ocellatus (Sacoglossa, Gastropoda) retains photosynthetically active chloroplasts from ingested algae (functional kleptoplasts) in the epithelial cells of its digestive gland for up to 10 months. While its feeding behavior has not been observed in natural habitats, two hypotheses have been proposed: 1) adult P. ocellatus uses kleptoplasts to obtain ...

A Deeply Branching Thermophilic Bacterium with an Ancient Acetyl-CoA Pathway Dominates a Subsurface Ecosystem

A nearly complete genome sequence of Candidatus ‘Acetothermum autotrophicum’, a presently uncultivated bacterium in candidate division OP1, was revealed by metagenomic analysis of a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 367 prokaryotes suggests that Ca. ‘A. autotrophicum’ is one of the ...

Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group

The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the ‘Thaumarchaeota’ and ‘Korarchaeota’. Here, we show the genome sequence of ...

Genome Sequence of a Mesophilic Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen Methanocella paludicola, the First Cultivated Representative of the Order Methanocellales

We report complete genome sequence of a mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanocella paludicola, the first cultured representative of the order Methanocellales once recognized as an uncultured key archaeal group for methane emission in rice fields. The genome sequence of M. paludicola consists of a single circular chromosome of 2,957,635 bp containing 3004 protein-coding ...

Genome sequence of Oceanobacillus iheyensis isolated from the Iheya Ridge and its unexpected adaptive capabilities to extreme environments

Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831 is an alkaliphilic and extremely halotolerant Bacillus‐related species isolated from deep‐sea sediment. We present here the complete genome sequence of HTE831 along with analyses of genes required for adaptation to highly alkaline and saline environments. The genome consists of 3.6 Mb, encoding many proteins potentially associated with roles in ...

Thermoadaptation trait revealed by the genome sequence of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus

We present herein the first complete genome sequence of a thermophilic Bacillus-related species, Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, which is composed of a 3.54 Mb chromosome and a 47.9 kb plasmid, along with a comparative analysis with five other mesophilic bacillar genomes. Upon orthologous grouping of the six bacillar sequenced genomes, it was found that 1257 common orthologous ...

Complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans and genomic sequence comparison with Bacillus subtilis

The 4 202 353 bp genome of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125 contains 4066 predicted protein coding sequences (CDSs), 2141 (52.7%) of which have functional assignments, 1182 (29%) of which are conserved CDSs with unknown function and 743 (18.3%) of which have no match to any protein database. Among the total CDSs, 8.8% match sequences of proteins found only in ...