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Correction to: Query Optimal k-Plex Based Community in Graphs

In the initial publication, first name and family name of the second author Xun Jian were switched around. The original article has been corrected.

Query Optimal k-Plex Based Community in Graphs

Community search problem, which is to find good communities given a set of query nodes in a graph, has attracted increasing research interest recently. Though various measurement models have been proposed to define and solve community search problem. Few of them could define a community concisely and have good quality of query results. They either involve additional constraints...

Physical Interactions and Functional Coordination between the Core Subunits of Set1/Mll Complexes and the Reprogramming Factors

Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to the pluripotent state by overexpression of defined factors, and this process is profoundly influenced by epigenetic mechanisms including dynamic histone modifications. Changes in H3K4 methylation have been shown to be the predominant activating response in the early stage of cellular reprogramming. Mechanisms underlying such epigenetic...

Trends of sputum-smear positive tuberculosis in Zimbabwe: 2008–2011

Background Tuberculosis (TB) has remained one of the major public health problems in Zimbabwe with an estimated incidence rate of 552 per 100,000 persons in 2013. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) sputum-smear positive (SSP) TB overall and within subpopulations for the period during 2008–2011 in Zimbabwe. Results of this study will...

Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Chongqing, China

To gain insight into the epidemiology of childhood drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in China that has the second largest burden of TB and the largest number of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB cases in the world, we performed the cross-sectional study to investigate drug resistance of four first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol) using...

Modulation of NF-κB/miR-21/PTEN Pathway Sensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer to Cisplatin

Background Platinum-based chemotherapy is a standard strategy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), while chemoresistance remains a major therapeutic challenge in current clinical practice. Our present study was aimed to determine whether inhibition of the NF-κB/miR-21/PTEN pathway could increase the sensitivity of NSCLC to cisplatin. Methods The expression of miR-21 in NSCLC...

Insight to the Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Tianjin, China during 2006-2011

Background The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among all the reported tuberculosis (TB) cases has increased in different populations. Despite the large burden of TB in China, the epidemiology of EPTB in China remains largely understudied and the risk factors for having EPTB diagnosis in China have not been identified. Methods To gain insight to EPTB epidemiology...

Comparison of the Predicted Population Coverage of Tuberculosis Vaccine Candidates Ag85B-ESAT-6, Ag85B-TB10.4, and Mtb72f via a Bioinformatics Approach

The Bacille-Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine does not provide consistent protection against adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. As novel TB vaccine candidates advance in studies and clinical trials, it will be critically important to evaluate their global coverage by assessing the impact of host and pathogen variability on vaccine efficacy. In this study, we focus on the...

A Three Dimensional Study of Upper Airway in Adult Skeletal Class II Patients with Different Vertical Growth Patterns

Objective The study was performed to compare the 3D pharyngeal airway dimensions in adult skeletal Class II patients with different vertical growth patterns (low, normal, and high angle) and to investigate whether the upper airway dimensions of untreated skeletal Class II adults were affected by vertical skeletal variables. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) records of...

The Road to Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) Elimination in Arkansas; a Re-Examination of Risk Groups

Objectives This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. Methods The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004–December 31, 2010). Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission...

Using epitope predictions to evaluate efficacy and population coverage of the Mtb72f vaccine for tuberculosis

Background The Mtb72f subunit vaccine for tuberculosis, currently in clinical trials, is hoped to provide improved protection compared to the current BCG vaccine. It is not clear, however, whether Mtb72f would be equally protective in the different human populations suffering from a high burden of tuberculosis. Previous work by Hebert and colleagues demonstrated that the PPE18...

Demographic and microbial characteristics of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases diagnosed in Malatya, Turkey, 2001-2007

Background Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has an increasing rate in Turkey. The reason remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the demographic and microbial characteristics of EPTB in the Turkish population would extend the knowledgebase of EPTB and allow us to develop better strategies to control tuberculosis (TB). Methods We retrospectively evaluated clinical and...

Effect of Sex, Age, and Race on the Clinical Presentation of Tuberculosis: A 15-Year Population-Based Study

1 Authors' addresses: Xinyu Zhang , Carl F. Marrs, Lixin Zhang, and Zhenhua Yang , Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, MI Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is an ... statistical data analysis. Financial support: This study was supported in part by the 2007 Elizabeth Crosby Award from the University of Michigan to Zhenhua Yang.

What's Driving the Decline in Tuberculosis in Arkansas? A Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Tuberculosis Trends in a Rural, Low-Incidence Population, 1997–2003

Incident cases of tuberculosis may result from a recently acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or from the reactivation of a latent infection acquired in the remote past. The authors used molecular fingerprinting data to estimate the relative contributions of recent and remotely acquired infection to the yearly incidence of tuberculosis in Arkansas, a state with a...

Reply

. Zhenhua Yang , Epidemiology Dept., School of Public Health , University of Michigan, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (zhenhua@ umich .edu). Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004 ; 39:600-1 2004

Identification of Risk Factors for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in the United States has increased from 16% of tuberculosis cases, in 1991, to 20%, in 2001. To determine associations between the demographic, clinical, and life style characteristics of patients with tuberculosis and the occurrence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, a retrospective case-control study was conducted. This study...

Prospective Use of Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Use of Restriction Fragment—Length Polymorphism in a Public Tuberculosis-Control Program

We performed a prospective, community-based evaluation of molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates as a method for tuberculosis (TB) control. We performed restriction fragment—length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the insertion sequences IS6110 and pTBN12 for isolates recovered from 61 of 62 patients with culture-positive TB in St. Louis during 12 months. Twenty...

Enhanced Capacity of a Widespread Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Grow in Human Macrophages

To determine whether the extent of spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the community correlated with their capacity to replicate in human macrophages, intracellular growth rates of M. tuberculosis patient isolates were measured. Strain 210 caused disease in 43 patients in central Los Angeles, 3 “small-cluster” strains caused disease in 8–23 patients, and 5 “unique...

Simultaneous Infection with Multiple Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Drug-susceptible and drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were recovered from 2 patients, 1 with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (patient 1) and another with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (patient 2). An investigation included patient interviews, record reviews, and genotyping of isolates. Both patients worked in a medical-waste processing plant. Transmission...

Interpretation of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from a State with a Large Rural Population

Epidemiologic relatedness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Arkansas residents diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1992–1993 was assessed using IS6110- and pTBN12-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and epidemiologic investigation. Patients with isolates having similar IS6110 patterns had medical records reviewed and were interviewed to identify...