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Hepatitis C virus mediated chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis in the humanised immune system and liver mouse model

and the IMCB FACS core (Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore) for flow cytometry support. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Zhiqiang Zheng, Yee-Joo Tan, Qingfeng Chen. Formal ... analysis: Zhiqiang Zheng, Ching Wooen Sze, Choong Tat Keng, Muthafar Al-Haddawi, Zhisheng Her, Bhaskar Barnwal, Yee-Joo Tan, Qingfeng Chen. Funding acquisition: Yee-Joo Tan, Qingfeng Chen. Investigation

Metabolic Coupling Determines the Activity: Comparison of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 and Its Coupling between Liver Parenchymal Cells and Testicular Leydig Cells

Background 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) interconverts active 11β-hydroxyl glucocorticoids and inactive 11keto forms. However, its directionality is determined by availability of NADP+/NADPH. In liver cells, 11β-HSD1 behaves as a primary reductase, while in Leydig cells it acts as a primary oxidase. However, the exact mechanism is not clear. The direction of 11...

MicroRNA-206: Effective Inhibition of Gastric Cancer Progression through the c-Met Pathway

MicroRNAs are endogenous short chain nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene function by direct binding of target mRNAs. In this study, we investigated the effects of microRNA-206 (miR-206) on the development of gastric cancer. miR-206 was first confirmed to be downregulated in gastric cancer specimens. Conversely, upregulation of c-Met was confirmed in tissue samples of human gastric...

Lactoferrin Promotes Early Neurodevelopment and Cognition in Postnatal Piglets by Upregulating the BDNF Signaling Pathway and Polysialylation

Lactoferrin (Lf) is a sialic acid (Sia)-rich, iron-binding milk glycoprotein that has multifunctional health benefits. Its potential role in neurodevelopment and cognition remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that Lf may function to improve neurodevelopment and cognition, the diet of postnatal piglets was supplemented with Lf from days 3 to 38. Expression levels of selected...

EvoRSR: an integrated system for exploring evolution of RNA structural robustness

Background Robustness, maintaining a constant phenotype despite perturbations, is a fundamental property of biological systems that is incorporated at various levels of biological complexity. Although robustness has been frequently observed in nature, its evolutionary origin remains unknown. Current hypotheses suggest that robustness originated as a direct consequence of natural...

A Requirement for FGF Signalling in the Formation of Primitive Streak-Like Intermediates from Primitive Ectoderm in Culture

Background Embryonic stem (ES) cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing...

A novel representation of RNA secondary structure based on element-contact graphs

Background Depending on their specific structures, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in many biological processes. Interest in developing new topological indices based on RNA graphs has been revived in recent years, as such indices can be used to compare, identify and classify RNAs. Although the topological indices presented before characterize the main topological...

In silico genetic robustness analysis of microRNA secondary structures: potential evidence of congruent evolution in microRNA

Background Robustness is a fundamental property of biological systems and is defined as the ability to maintain stable functioning in the face of various perturbations. Understanding how robustness has evolved has become one of the most attractive areas of research for evolutionary biologists, as it is still unclear whether genetic robustness evolved as a direct consequence of...

RSRE: RNA structural robustness evaluator

Biological robustness, defined as the ability to maintain stable functioning in the face of various perturbations, is an important and fundamental topic in current biology, and has become a focus of numerous studies in recent years. Although structural robustness has been explored in several types of RNA molecules, the origins of robustness are still controversial. Computational...

Manipulation of Cell:Cell Contacts and Mesoderm Suppressing Activity Direct Lineage Choice from Pluripotent Primitive Ectoderm-Like Cells in Culture

In the mammal, the pluripotent cells of embryo differentiate and commit to either the mesoderm/endoderm lineages or the ectoderm lineage during gastrulation. In culture, the ability to direct lineage choice from pluripotent cells into the mesoderm/endoderm or ectoderm lineages will enable the development of technologies for the formation of highly enriched or homogenous...

RDMAS: a web server for RNA deleterious mutation analysis

Background The diverse functions of ncRNAs critically depend on their structures. Mutations in ncRNAs disrupting the structures of functional sites are expected to be deleterious. RNA deleterious mutations have attracted wide attentions because some of them in cells result in serious disease, and some others in microbes influence their fitness. Results The RDMAS web server we...