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Foodborne Nosocomial Outbreak of SHV1 and CTX-M-15–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: Epidemiology and Control

Background. We describe a foodborne nosocomial outbreak due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods.An outbreak of ESBL K. pneumoniae was detected in March 2008. Initial control measures included contact isolation and a protocol for routine detection and reinforcement in hand hygiene practices. ESBL producers were screened for the blaTEM, ...

A Large Multicenter Study of Methicillin–Susceptible and Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infections Managed With Implant Retention

, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona , Barcelona 15 Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Hospital del Mar 16 Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital ... Mar, Barcelona, Spain); Mara Franco, Marcos Jordn and Pere Coll (Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain); Juan Amador-Mellado, Carlos Fuster-Foz, Luis Garca-Pano (Hospital El Bierzo

Single-Slice Computed Tomography and Anthropometric Skinfold Analysis for Evaluation of Facial Lipoatrophy in HIV-Infected Patients

We assessed the value of computed tomography (CT) and anthropometric skinfold analysis for evaluating subcutaneous facial fat in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Patients with facial lipoatrophy had smaller areas of facial adipose tissue, lower ratios of adipose tissue area to total tissue area of the face, and lower malar skinfold values, compared with patients ...

Prediction of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events Associated with Long-Term Efavirenz Therapy, Using Plasma Drug Level Monitoring

Background. Data on long-term central nervous system (CNS) toxicity associated with efavirenz therapy are scarce, and risk factors remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine whether monitoring the plasma concentration of efavirenz could predict neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with long-term therapy with efavirenz. Methods. We performed a longitudinal study involving ...

Relationship between HIV/Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)—associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome and Stavudine-Triphosphate Intracellular Levels in Patients with Stavudine-Based Antiretroviral Regimens

Background The link between human immunodeficiency virus/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)—associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) and the use of thymidine analogues has been well established. However, to our knowledge, no relationship has been proven between intracellular levels of stavudine (d4T) and HALS.

Influence of Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration on the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

Background. Vancomycin treatment failure in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is not uncommon, even when MRSA is susceptible to vancomycin. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration has any influence on the mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia. Methods. A total of 414 episodes of MRSA bacteremia were ...

Large Outbreak of Measles in a Community with High Vaccination Coverage: Implications for the Vaccination Schedule

Background. Attempts to eliminate measles from a country or region may be disrupted by an imported case that affects indigenous persons. The objective of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a measles outbreak in Catalonia, Spain, in 2006. Methods. Data on cases of measles reported to the Department of Health, Generalitat of Catalonia, during ...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fungemia: An Emerging Infectious Disease

Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known in the baking and brewing industry and is also used as a probiotic in humans. However, it is a very uncommon cause of infection in humans.

Isoniazid Hepatotoxicity among Drug Users: The Role of Hepatitis C

The incidence of and risk factors associated with hepatotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis have not been systematically studied. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study that included former drug users who were treated with isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection. Of 415 patients, 20 (4.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3–7.4) had hepatotoxicity diagnosed, and 6 ...

Evaluation of the Immunochromatographic Binax NOW Assay for Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae Urinary Antigen in a Prospective Study of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Spain

We evaluated the Binax NOW rapid immunochromatographic membrane test (ICT) for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen in a population-based prospective study of adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). ICT was performed with urine samples obtained from 452 (91.7%) of 493 patients enrolled. Pneumococcal antigen was detected in 19 (70.4%) of 27 patients with ...

Superinfection Following Smallpox Vaccination (Vaccinia), United States: Surveillance January 2003 through January 2004

Background. Superinfection is an adverse event following smallpox vaccination. The clinical presentation is similar to that of a large normal vaccine reaction or “robust take,” and the frequency is unknown. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all reported severe local reactions consistent with superinfection among United States civilian smallpox vaccinees from January 2003 through ...

Contribution of Genetic Background, Traditional Risk Factors, and HIV-Related Factors to Coronary Artery Disease Events in HIV-Positive Persons

Background Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. Methods In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide ...

Bacteremia Caused by Capnocytophaga Species in Patients with Neutropenia and Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Study

We investigated 28 cases of bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga species that occurred during an 8-year period, most of which were in patients with hematologic malignancy and neutropenia. Infections were uncomplicated, without serious organ involvement and without any apparent source except ulcerations of the oropharyngeal mucosa, and only 1 isolate showed resistance to β-lactam ...

Endocarditis Caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: Case Report and Review

Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia is a rare cause of endocarditis. The extensive resistance of this organism to several antibiotics leaves few options for antimicrobial therapy. In vitro synergism of the combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (TIC/CA) has been demonstrated. To our knowledge, we report the first case of ...